sildenafil ireland viagra usa super cialis viagra discount coupon sildenafil troche cialis daily reviews viagra at boots viagra buy viagra in spain buy cialis using paypal viagra in sydney viagra sales uk cialis import costco cialis price viagra 50mg 100mg sri lanka viagra viagra hq toronto generic viagra overnight shipping buy chinese viagra buy cialis paypal generic viagra canada cipla viagra review how much is viagra in boots cialis dapoxetine cialis generic uk how much does cialis cost with insurance viagra blood pressure how much does cialis cost mechanism of viagra generic viagra scam cheap viagra for sale uk wikipedia cialis viagra reviews viagra pro cutting viagra in half levitra pro levitra professional cheapest viagra tablets for sale pfizer viagra packaging sildenafil citrate 100mg levitra malaysia how much is cialis at walgreens viagra gel uk cialis 100mg pills long term effects of viagra viagra dosage viagra coupons can i get viagra in chennai viagra for sale without prescription viagra sri lanka price of cialis at walmart viagra instructions generic cialis paypal cipla generic cialis sildenafil price generic cialis paypal payment viagra before after what does viagra cost at walmart viagra gels best price on cialis cialis spray buy cialis no prescription cvs viagra price levitra vs viagra viagra cyprus is generic viagra safe how does sildenafil work cialis yan etkileri viagra for women in hindi buy viagra in toronto viagra tablets for men tadalafil 20mg cheap viagra for sale when will generic viagra be available viagra co uk viagra liquid viagra sale singapore viagra germany india generic viagra sildenafil jelly amazon viagra viagra de online viagra review how much is viagra in ireland cialis 20mg reviews can i buy viagra with paypal generic cialis overnight shipping shelf life cialis levitra in delhi cialis tablets price of viagra at walgreens viagra fast is viagra legal in ireland viagra soft gels buy viagra discover card to buy viagra in hyderabad viagra for sale in south africa generic names for viagra generic cialis from canada walmart pharmacy viagra before after viagra pics price of levitra at walmart sildenafil from india what is viagra gold pfizer viagra price in india viagra next day delivery viagra price comparison newsletter viagra viagra oil how much is viagra on the street viagra 200mg viagra mexico what is the shelf life of viagra generic levitra reviews buy tadalafil viagra price in india viagra brand cialis super active reviews viagra for women how much does viagra cost with insurance cialis ireland viagra long term side effects brand viagra 100mg singapore viagra legal tadalafil overnight delivery tadalafil overdose how much does viagra cost in the uk viagra online without prescription viagra fast delivery vardenafil aurochem sildenafil temple buy viagra pay with paypal viagra india price viagra substitute viagra for sale paypal best place to buy viagra online viagra under tongue viagra knock offs compare generic cialis prices organic cialis london drugs viagra overnight shipping viagra cialis costco to buy viagra in edmonton viagra gold viagra in dublin buy viagra in france aurochem sildenafil cialis capsules viagra hk cialis daily cost walmart viagra viagra pay by paypal tadalafil viagra super active uk does online viagra work levitra professional online shelf life viagra generic cialis reviews how much is levitra at walmart viagra street price how many viagra can i take buy 36 hour cialis how much is viagra walmart pharmacy viagra price buy cialis in toronto paypal payment for viagra best over the counter viagra substitute how much is viagra in mexico buy viagra ireland viagra in srilanka viagra in singapore generic viagra from canada viagra brisbane buy viagra in mexico buy viagra online canada ingredients in cialis meaning of viagra buying viagra in london generic viagra fast shipping viagra canada paypal is the cialis from canada any good cialis 200mg buy cialis with paypal viagra packaging viagra instructions for use viagra prices canadian viagra scam cialis 20mg to buy cialis in toronto cheap generic cialis uk cialis etkileri tadalafil grapefruit shelf life of levitra viagra online next day delivery viagra blindness symptoms cialis 100mg 36 hour cialis online viagra in toronto online viagra ireland levitra review cialis prices cvs white viagra levitra price walmart cialis walmart price female viagra pill bay viagra viagra cipla levitra ireland cialis walgreens price walgreens viagra price cialis 40 mg generic viagra for sale viagra tablets in hyderabad cialis cost per pill viagra online uk paypal how much viagra to take cheap cialis in canada grapefruit viagra interaction viagra canada pharmacy scam viagra price in sri lanka generic viagra ireland generic viagra safety cialis professional cvs viagra viagra price uk viagra nyc buying viagra online ireland tadalafil generic uk cheap viagra next day delivery tadalafil soft tablets viagra gel sachets uk viagra perth levitra price at walmart viagra next day delivery usa topical sildenafil cutting cialis in half viagra in hong kong levitra jelly cheap pfizer viagra online viagra ireland online vardenafil cipla pink cialis does cialis really work buy strong viagra online pharmacy viagra buying viagra in tijuana viagra fast shipping buy viagra in cyprus discount viagra buy generic cialis cialis information viagra jelly uk walmart sell viagra viagra prices in pakistan buy viagra in calgary does viagra really work viagra tablets in pakistan levitra 20mg tablets buy levitra online canada cialis 100mg dosage plant vigra viagra 100 mg pfizer kako deluje viagra sildenafil soft tablets 100mg cialis online paypal how to buy cialis em toronto brand viagra viagra in india price viagra gel caps aurochem cialis cost of viagra without insurance pfizer viagra 100mg levitra nedir viagra paypal payment viagra from mexico pink viagra pfizer viagra for sale cialis one a day viagra gel for sale belize viagra viagra uk paypal viagra cost per pill viagra en espanol cialis 10mg dosage liquid viagra online viagra atlanta cipla viagra viagra coupon viagra substitute uk generic viagra price comparison buy viagra japan is cialis over the counter in canada 36 hour cialis viagra for girls levitra coupon tadalafil usa walmart prices for viagra generic tadalafil viagra shanghai getting viagra in ireland girls viagra generic viagra uk levitra professional tadalafil professional cialis prices at walmart how long does cialis take to work bangkok viagra viagra in sri lanka viagra pay with pay pal viagra denver wild viagra uk viagra with paypal generic tadalafil review brand levitra 20mg canadian pharmacy viagra scam generic cialis in canada brand name viagra viagra generic date sildenafil canada generic viagra suppliers pharmacy express viagra cialis levitra vpxl viagra with dapoxetine viagra for sale cheap viagra vs cialis sildenafil citrate canada cialis spain best over the counter viagra viagra price dapoxetine cialis cialis online canada viagra headache how much does cialis cost in canada viagra in cape town viagra singapore buy levitra in canada cialis super active review viagra price walmart viagra online nz how much does cialis cost without insurance why does viagra cost so much viagra japan india generic cialis buy viagra online with paypal cheap sildenafil citrate 50mg tadalafil para que serve cialis testimonials buy viagra online next day delivery cialis 5 mg sildenafil 50mg generic tadalafil uk how much do viagra pills cost cialis soft tabs review cialis malaysia cialis coupon online tadalafil sunrise buying viagra in costa rica viagra pay with paypal viagra no japao generic cialis for daily use viagra gel sale how many viagra pills can i take next day viagra delivery cost of viagra per pill cialis ireland online pharmacy american viagra cialis dubai cost of viagra in chennai viagra for sale in dublin next day delivery cialis viagra vietnam viagra edmonton buy viagra in dubai viagra alcohol side effects mens viagra levitra kaufen herbal viagra dublin viagra in spain viagra in pakistan price tadalafil 5mg super viagra levitra half life how much is viagra with insurance cialis 10mg viagra for sale in london viagra shoppers drug mart buy cialis ireland buy cialis in canada does walmart sell viagra viagra costs per pill cialis super active 20mg cialis mexico cialis prices levitra price cialis en espanol vardenafil duration of action generic viagra mastercard levitra forum spanish viagra is generic levitra safe what is cialis used for is viagra legal in singapore levitra shelf life viagra pricing viagra best price fast acting viagra viagra 100mg price walmart viagra online cyprus cialis 5mg price cialis benefits viagra paypal canada generic cialis india viagra 100mg cost of levitra at walmart cialis pills for sale different types of viagra cialis forum levitra grapefruit over the counter viagra cialis soft tabs vs cialis viagra offer super strength viagra cialis jelly price of viagra in india cialis walmart cialis canada levitra price walgreens how long before cialis kicks in sildenafil generic india levitra generico viagra orange county female viagra review levitra 20mg mechanism of action of viagra buy viagra in germany india cialis cialis super active levitra yan etkileri cialis for young men walmart cialis viagra montreal viagra professional scam cialis c20 rite aid cialis price female viagra in india viagra indianapolis sign up for viagra c20 viagra cialis for sale in canada tadalafil cheapest levitra cost at walmart paypal viagra viagra over the counter viagra versus cialis what schedule is viagra cialis getting pregnant generic levitra uk levitra 10mg buy viagra in shanghai viagra expiration date canadian pharmacy viagra viagra online boots cialis australia levitra tablet to buy viagra in shanghai legal age to buy viagra sildenafil tablets 100 mg viagra soft cialis gel viagra online edmonton generic viagra 50mg viagra price in malaysia viagra building viagra flavored 100mg viagra 50mg online buying viagra in dubai is generic viagra real cheap viagra pills cialis coupon viagra headache cure cialis daily generic viagra casero sildenafil tablets 100mg viagra in costa rica cheap viagra 100mg sildenafil levitra professional reviews cialis headache remedy viagra testimonials what do viagra tablets look like cialis not working cialis side effects in men viagra wiki how long cialis take to work buy cialis from india viagra light switch cialis professional vs cialis cialis at walmart viagra available in chennai sildenafil citrate uk buy viagra online ireland shoppers drug mart viagra viagra online paypal brand cialis online tadalafil soft gelatin capsules levitra india viagra in india hyderabad levitra duration cialis at rite aid viagra sales online viagra dp buy viagra in pakistan viagra cocktail to buy viagra in stores viagra 25mg online super active viagra to buy viagra in south korea cost of cialis at walmart sildenafil 100mg viagra india online kuala lumpur viagra cialis sales cialis bathtub meaning viagra alternatives original viagra pfizer buy viagra in delhi cialis japan viagra mechanism levitra canada how to ask your doctor for viagra viagra mailing list how much is viagra in uk what does viagra do vardenafil viagra power 100 buying viagra in singapore cialis blog buy viagra london substitute of viagra in india brand viagra canada cialis dosage 40 mg can you buy viagra over the counter in canada buy viagra without prescription new cialis viagra northern ireland cialis singapore viagra london tadalafil generic viagra online reviews benefits of cialis costco pharmacy cialis different kinds of viagra levitra 20mg price viagra not working viagra price at walmart viagra japao viagra youtube india tadalafil boots viagra supplier viagra wikipedia brand viagra offers cheapest viagra online vardenafil duration levitra generic canada pfizer viagra price viagra alcohol how much is viagra in south africa levitra prices walmart viagra online without prescription reviews boots viagra cialis over the counter canada cialis england gold viagra viagra alternative cialis tablets for sale buy female viagra cialis miami viagra kgr 100 dubai viagra cheap viagra buy viagra with paypal next day delivery viagra how much does viagra cost at walmart viagra for sale uk walmart levitra tijuana viagra buy viagra in sri lanka vardenafil canada cialis 10mg price female viagra canada cialis paypal payment how to get viagra in ontario sildenafil india cialis india viagra forum canada tadalafil from india kamagra sildenafil levitra price comparison viagra in pakistan buy cialis in singapore levitra 20mg dosage can i get viagra in ireland buy viagra from india buy viagra from usa walmart viagra pricing viagra no prescription paypal viagra glasgow synthesis of sildenafil cialis cvs viagra online india cyprus viagra tadalafil generic canada cialis 5mg reviews amsterdam viagra viagra prices walmart buy sildenafil viagra user reviews levitra paypal sildenafil tablets viagra uae cialis capsule viagra articles viagra professional vs viagra how long does viagra last super viagra plus sildenafil soft tablets sildenafil online price of viagra tablets in india viagra casera cialis before after cialis professional 20 mg viagra discover card is generic cialis from india safe viagra equivalent levitra cost walmart levitra testimonials levitra in india cost of viagra 100mg cialis pills viagra in dubai pharmacy how to buy viagra in toronto female viagra cocktail recipe pfizer viagra pink viagra for sale sildenafil 100mg canadian can you take viagra cialis together viagra paypal non prescription viagra viagra overdose cialis from india inexpensive viagra 36 hr cialis boots cialis natural viagra levitra philippines viagra for women in india over the counter cialis cost of cialis at costco strong viagra levitra professional uk viagra at walmart vardenafil citrate cialis price walmart viagra cape town viagra philippines viagra tablets in india tadalafil 20mg canada viagra at shoppers drug mart viagra ie cialis side effects viagra prices at walmart cvs pharmacy cialis viagra prices cvs cvs cialis viagra deals cialis super active plus substitute for viagra how much does viagra cost in ireland wikipedia viagra wal mart pharmacy prices cialis viagra in hyderabad viagra sale brand viagra for sale viagra in south korea viagra hong kong costa rica viagra viagra side effects female pink viagra viagra brochure cialis headache relief viagra not working anymore generic viagra discover card levitra vs cialis best deals on viagra is generic cialis safe viagra overnight shipping generic viagra india safe cialis dosage instructions buy generic viagra using paypal viagra gel sachets cheap brand viagra ebay cialis cialis bathtub symbolism viagra natural casera cialis daily buy viagra with pay pal singapore viagra cialis 5mg wild viagra viagra london drugs viagra for sale in ireland cialis in dubai cialis ireland online viagra boots viagra in oil shelf life of viagra can i buy viagra in mexico viagra soft tabs walmart levitra price edmonton viagra viagra available in delhi viagra super active viagra tijuana viagra substitute over the counter how much viagra is safe to take vardenafil hcl sildenafil citrate 50mg uk canadian pharmacy online cialis viagra street value viagra paypal checkout cipla cialis review female viagra uk viagra price in uae viagra dublin generic cialis from india walmart viagra price cialis online para que serve tadalafil how much does a viagra prescription cost buy viagra paypal generic viagra online reviews how to buy viagra in singapore buy viagra online no prescription vardenafil dosage levitra brand cialis no prescription does generic cialis work cialis for daily use viagra price in dubai viagra for sale in spain pfizer viagra reviews cialis daily online price of viagra in delhi costco cialis viagra for sale no prescription buy viagra online no prescription uk viagra sign up buy generic cialis in canada tadalafil brands buy viagra new york what does generic viagra look like much does viagra cost walmart what do viagra pills look like c 20 il viagra cialis pro viagra super active vs viagra professional to buy viagra in glasgow viagra pills buying viagra online cialis via paypal what is the street value of viagra how to get viagra in singapore cialis 20mg dosage levitra etkileri powerful viagra viagra las vegas mygra sildenafil viagra 100mg pills to buy viagra in singapore buy generic cialis uk levitra at walmart cialis bangkok can you buy viagra without prescription viagra dose viagra on line viagra tablets for women viagra tablets viagra newsletter cialis uk next day delivery how much is viagra worth viagra online no prescription uk can you buy viagra over the counter in spain viagra kuwait cialis packaging super viagra uk sildenafil alternatives how many viagra female viagra shanghai viagra best generic viagra cost of cialis without insurance viagra for sale in uk cost of viagra in canada cialis best price tadalafil india viagra in chennai viagra spray cheapest viagra natural viagra alternatives how to obtain viagra get viagra ireland cost of viagra tablets in india cialis cipla generic viagra india tadalafil generic india viagra via paypal viagra cost at walmart viagra in south africa cheap cialis buy cialis online paypal mexico viagra levitra thailand herbal viagra levitra dosage viagra jelly vardenafil side effects deals on viagra buy vardenafil uk viagra toronto canada how much does viagra cost at target vardenafil price cialis cost in canada how much does viagra cost without insurance cialis overnight shipping cialis expiration date why does cialis use bathtubs viagra soft tabs review cialis headache viagra greece viagra in cyprus viagra uk next day delivery cialis with dapoxetine generic viagra professional 100mg aurochem viagra viagra melbourne boots the chemist viagra viagra without subscription viagra kuala lumpur viagra free shipping viagra email list viagra online australia female viagra 100mg what is viagra jelly were to buy viagra bayviagra can i buy viagra in ireland otc cialis shoppers drug mart cialis viagra for women for sale best price tadalafil buying viagra in germany viagra headquarter toronto is cialis better than viagra viagra directions viagra canada cheap cialis next day delivery buy viagra in hong kong how to get viagra sildenafil citrate 100mg uk viagra in dubai deals long term side effects of viagra does generic viagra look like different type of viagra buy viagra edmonton real viagra online buy viagra using paypal viagra online canada viagra manchester cialis tadalafil cialis generic viagra generic paypal price of viagra in mexico buy viagra online using paypal sunrise tadalafil viagra in uae viagra ontario viagra for sale in usa gel viagra street value of viagra solubility of sildenafil viagra cvs liquid viagra uk online viagra reviews cialis bayer cost of viagra at walmart ranbaxy levitra to buy viagra canada tadalafil sildenafil dosage tadalafil chewable how much does viagra cost with a prescription generic viagra alternatives cialis cost viagra professional review viagra pics generic cialis 200mg viagra price comparisons viagra boots london cialis paypal sildenafil citrate how much is a viagra prescription levitra hong kong female viagra cocktail sildenafil 50 mg to buy viagra in toronto chinese viagra viagra dapoxetine cialis prices walmart how much is viagra in canada buy viagra in dublin cialis 5 mg daily is there a viagra for women viagra directions for use to buy viagra in manila how to get viagra in ireland cialis in toronto viagra in stores viagra europe viagra price in chennai viagra without prescription cialis free offer viagra tablets price in pakistan tadalafil tablets 20 mg female viagra for sale viagra benefits viagra in japan cialis over the counter generic viagra boots chemist viagra free female viagra cialis lilly buy viagra discover card viagra viagra for sale canada buy viagra online usa buy viagra online with paypal viagra buy paypal viagra forum viagra pills look like can i buy viagra in dubai cialis rash buy viagra montreal Erectile Dysfunction vigra buy viagra in malaysia tadalafil soft gelatin capsule levitra meaning how many viagra can you take in a day female cialis review cialis jelly sachet does generic viagra work cialis 50mg sildenafil powder how much viagra cost cialis ebay viagra vancouver viagra sales in canada cialis in mexico generic viagra reviews how much is viagra at walmart viagra gel discount cialis canada viagra quick delivery wholesale viagra viagra c20 cialis viagra on ebay viagra online ireland cialis canadian pharmacy paypal cialis cialis price at walmart cheap viagra uk paypal viagra costa rica sildenafil dapoxetine buy viagra spain viagra manila generic super cialis overnight viagra delivery how to buy viagra viagra recreational use cialis soft 20mg viagra discount prices viagra online pay with paypal india viagra levitra plus viagra malaysia buying viagra in france generic cialis mexican viagra for sale in canada generic viagra offers viagra cost viagra in delhi viagra 25mg grapefruit viagra youtube viagra viagra in denver pharmacy sildenafil buy viagra dublin buying viagra in spain viagra in mexico viagra cost canada to buy viagra in new york buy female viagra uk cialis wikipedia levitra in thailand viagra nz cialis price how long does cialis last las vegas viagra vardenafil uk viagra substitutes over the counter love viagra sildenafil liquid buying viagra in hong kong buy viagra in ireland cialis espanol viagra long term effects cialis directions levitra side effects to buy viagra in dubai viagra 100mg prices generic viagra uk paypal generic viagra from india buy viagra online in ireland cialis 1800 viagra no prescription walmart tadalafil viagra in ireland viagra in dubai best generic viagra review red viagra vardenafil india generic cialis 100mg cialis for sale cialis kontraindikacije viagra before after pics generic cialis uk how many viagra should i take proviagra viagra results viagra calgary viagra 50mg canada cialis canada reviews buy viagra online viagra grapefruit viagra jellies tadalafil tablets viagra 100mg tablets viagra shipped from canada pay for viagra with paypal what is the shelf life of cialis brand viagra online pharmacy express viagra canada pink viagra viagra spain over the counter viagra sales generic viagra price buy viagra singapore cialis 20mg canada sildenafil aurochem viagra soft 100mg temple sildenafil over the counter viagra substitute cialis sale online viagra cheap cialis professional wikipedia viagra payment paypal viagra in boots levitra reviews viagra in hindi viagra professional 100mg cialis price in malaysia walmart price for cialis viagra sydney viagra professional uk viagra costs cialis shelf life best generic viagra reviews walmart pharmacy cialis price tadalafil canada synthesis sildenafil buy levitra from canada sildenafil pronunciation generic levitra from india generic viagra next day delivery generic cialis review viagra 100mg for sale cialis original viagra tablets for sale uk levitra walmart price female cialis herbal viagra au bayer levitra how much viagra is safe viagra tube before after cialis sildenafil citrate 100mg canada hong kong viagra viagra meaning viagra suppliers vardenafil tablets viagra in kuwait buy viagra in london buy generic cialis online uk sildenafil solubility viagra ebay viagra dosage instructions viagra toronto levitra online canada what does a viagra pill look like viagra american express best viagra deals viagra tablets in bangalore viagra malaysia pharmacy boots viagra online viagra online cialis super active plus reviews viagra in calgary original viagra for sale mexico cialis viagra 100mg pfizer cialis bayer 20 free viagra viagra 100mg price viagra super active plus cialis uk to get viagra in toronto buy liquid viagra cialis walgreens vardenafil generico cialis experiences vardenafil 10mg viagra grapefruit interaction tadalafil ingredients cialis liquid cialis 20mg price viagra by cipla viagra 100 cost of viagra can i buy viagra in toronto daily use cialis viagra ingredients viagra high blood pressure how much is levitra pharmacy online ireland cialis levitra super active plus cialis in spain brand cialis for sale viagra half life buy viagra online australia walmart cialis price sildenafil citrate online how much should viagra cost viagra price in pakistan sildenafil synthesis tadalafil best price buy cialis viagra for sale philippines cialis price comparison how much does viagra cost in canada is viagra legal in australia cialis vs viagra how much is viagra on prescription viagra amsterdam how much is viagra without insurance most powerful viagra cialis europe viagra for sale to buy viagra in hong kong levitra generic viagra ireland cialis vs viagra reviews viagra capsules levitra in windsor sildenafil genfar viagra pfizer better than viagra boots ireland viagra tadalafil uk cialis generic canada how much is cialis without insurance liquid viagra viagra for sell viagra tablets price in india viagra voucher everyday cialis jelly viagra viagra cost walmart viagra online no prescription best price cialis 20mg nude viagra viagra dubai types of viagra tadalafil overnight vardenafil hci viagra jakarta cost of viagra in mexico buy viagra in new york buy viagra with discover card buy viagra toronto tadalafil over the counter is it illegal to buy viagra online vardenafil hydrochloride does walmart have viagra cialis mailing list generic tadalafil canada viagra super active reviews shelf life of cialis viagra pills for sale viagra online paypal uk genuine viagra for sale cipla cialis cialis dosage online viagra sales sildenafil gel cialis 10mg vs 20mg to buy viagra in ireland viagra in london generic cialis next day delivery how many years can you take viagra viagra pills for men real viagra generic viagra paypal buying viagra in ireland cialis reviews viagra availability in delhi viagra for sale ireland generic viagra review viagra fedex viagra with no prescription viagra sachets vardenafil hcl 20mg tab cheap cialis uk viagra in northern ireland buy generic viagra paypal tadalafil bestellen viagra dose size cialis in ireland buy viagra in singapore lowest price on cialis is viagra over the counter viagra shelf life cialis south africa aurochem laboratories generic cialis reviews sildenafil citrate tablets 100mg buy cialis online with paypal viagra with discover card viagra san diego how much does viagra cost is viagra safe viagra paypal uk bayer cialis to buy viagra in kuala lumpur street value for viagra how much is cialis cialis instructions viagra uk viagra uk boots cialis 10mg tablets cialis cost canada pink viagra for women how much is cialis with insurance viagra power viagra types how long for cialis to work buying viagra in mexico genericviagra me uk to buy viagra in calgary viagra results before after tijuana pharmacy viagra viagra in nigeria buy viagra online paypal pfizer viagra online viagra c20 cheap tadalafil viagra kako deluje viagra copyright buying viagra ireland cialis gel tabs viagra 50mg how does viagra work sildenafil generic generic viagra free shipping boots viagra london viagra australia cialis wiki viagra soft tabs uk dp viagra cialis from mexico female pink viagra 100mg pills viagra light viagra price in delhi cialis canada online pharmacy viagra in malaysia female viagra to buy viagra professional generic cialis try viagra for free viagra price in indian rupees ebay viagra cialis ie before after viagra who sells viagra free cialis i want to buy viagra what does viagra look like cialis professional uk viagra in shanghai kgr 100 viagra how much is viagra in the philippines viagra tablets in chennai can i buy viagra in singapore can you buy viagra over the counter levitra 20 mg walmart pharmacy cialis viagra natural viagra alternatives for sale sildenafil online canada cipla viagra reviews viagra generic viagra quotes how many viagra can you take cialis 36 hour online cialis pink brand cialis brand viagra no prescription viagra for men viagra for sale australia brand levitra buy viagra through paypal generic levitra canada walgreens cialis price viagra professional vs viagra super active viagra south africa calgary viagra cialis for sale online viagra in kuala lumpur viagra canada no prescription viagra 100 mg best price tadalafil dosage viagra price canada generic levitra india brand cialis canada sildenafil alcohol viagra under the tongue how much does viagra cost in mexico buy viagra per pill cialis ontario 6 5 9 0 Green Integer Books, Green Integer Review 5, Douglas Messerli on Witold Gombrowicz

Green Integer | 6210 Wilshire Boulevard, Suite 211 | Los Angeles, CA 90048 | (323) 857-1115 | Contact Us

Essays, Manifestos, Statements, Speeches, Maxims, Epistles, Diaristic Jottings, Narratives, Natural histories, Poems, Plays, Performances, Ramblings, Revelations, and all such ephemera as may appear necessary to bring society into a slight tremolo of confusion and fright at least.

Complete Catalog
Green Integer
On Net
Recent Titles
Best Sellers

Green Integer Review

No. 5 (Nov 2006)
Poetry & Fiction, Interviews, Essays & Reviews, Bios, Links
Douglas Messerli, Editor

Douglas Messerli

The Serving Class [on Witold Gombrowicz]

The Serving Class

Witold Gombrowicz, Ferdydurke (Warsaw: Towarzystwo Wydawnicze Rój, 1937).
Witold Gombrowicz, Ferdydurke, translated by Eric Mosbacher (New York: Harcourt, Brace and World, 1961).
Witold Gombrowicz, Kosmos (Kraków: Wydawnictwo Literackie, 1986)
Witold Gombrowicz, Ferdydurke, translated by Danuta Borchardt (New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 2000).
Witold Gombrowicz, Pamiętnikz okresu dojrzewania (Poland, 1933).
Witold Gombrowicz, Bakakaj (Kraków: Wydawnictwo Literackie, 1957).
Witold Gombrowicz, Bacacay, translated from the Polish by Bill Johnston (New York: Archipelago Books, 2002).
Witold Gombrowicaz, Cosmos, translated from the Polish by Danuta Borchardt (New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 2005).


Gombrowicz’s great masterwork of Polish literature, Ferdydurke was published in Warsaw in 1937, and over the years has been twice translated into English. The current edition, published by Yale University Press, seems destined to become the authoritative edition—although some critics have argued that the changes most put forward by the new translator Danuta Borchardt are not that central to the reading; and for some readers the favorite edition remains Eric Mosbacher’s translation of the early 1960s. Since I don’t read Polish, and have forgotten my experience of first reading, I’ll offer no opinion on this issue.

     No one seems to know the exact source or meaning of the novel’s title—which has no particular meaning or obvious association in Polish culture; some argue it was appropriated from Sinclair Lewis’ Babbitt character, Freddy Durkee. It hardly matters, for Gombrowicz’s tale is centered on three interconnected stories of institutional domination and the infantilization of the individual that follows. In the first section, Joey, an adult in his 30s is suddenly abducted by his former school-teacher, T. Plimko, “a doctor of philosophy and a professor, in reality just a schoolteacher, a cultural philologue from Kraków, short and light, skinny, bald, wearing spectacles, pin-striped trousers, a jacket, yellow buckskin shoes, his fingernails large and yellow.” Joey is taken away and returned to sixth grade, where—in Lewis Carroll-like absurdity—he towers among his fellow students without anyone seeming to notice his age or stature. Through a series of verbal abuses, ritualistic mutterings (which includes the conjugation of Latin adverbs and statements like “…We teachers love you little chickies, chirp, chirp, chirp, you know: ‘suffer the little ones to come unto me.’”) Joey is imprisoned and belittled into submission at his new institution.

     Gombrowicz hilariously mocks not only the teaching in this absurd world, but the students who through their language have grotesquely twisted their thinking to the empty logic of the system: “And what perfidious whims and airs have perchance caused the person of my dear Sir to present himself so tardily at this dump of a school?” chirps one of the students. Another laughs idiotically, saying “Could it be that amours for a damsel have delayed our colegus venerabilis? Is this perchance why our presumptuous colegus so languidus est?” Given such meaningless jargon, the linguistic battles between students Syphon and Kneadus become a world of hyper-speech that is a good match to our cypertalk and advertising jargon of today.

     Just when it appears that Joey could not be further humiliated, he is sent to live in the home of a bourgeois family, the Youngbloods, where he falls ridiculously in love with the daughter, who as a “modern schoolgirl,” creates a pattern of  perpetual seduction and punishment of her would-be suitor. To get back at the girl and family, Joey plots to entrap his professor in the girl’s room, which ends in an absurd free-for-all on the floor of the room where she has been discovered by her parents with a young student and Plimko both. Humiliation and denigration has again won the day, and Joey is left with no alternative but to escape.

     His escape with fellow student Kneadus to the country, however, bodes no better for the future. For Kneadus has suddenly transformed his love of young serving girls to a homoerotic search for young farmhands. Joey and Kneadus retreat to the farm of Joey’s uncle and aunt, where indeed Kneadus finds the object of his desire, much to the consternation of the elderly couple, Joey, and the young valet,Valek. Joey’s attempt to take Kneadus from the house in a final escape ends in perhaps the funniest scene in the book, as the master of the house, hearing Joey, Kneadus and Valek on the escape, enters the room—gun in hand. Lights out, they remain frozen in position as the farmer searches for them, soon joined by Joey’s cousins—who, in turn, all freeze in panic as the butler enters with a paraffin lamp. Each individual, terrified of discovery, pretends a kind of nonexistence until the room is filled, Gombrowicz hints, with a world of inexplicable ghosts.

     Before one can have a world of absurd bureaucracy, one must have a world of individuals willing to submit.

     In Bacacay, made up of sections from Ferdydurke and seven earlier short stories, we see the roots of Gombrowicz’s thinking and perceive the grotesque humor which already characterized his writing before the great novel. “Lawyer Kraykowski’s Dancer” begins very similarly to Arthur Schnitzler’s short novel, Lieutenant Gustl: a man at a concert is insulted by another. But while Schnitzler’s Lieutenant suffers such indignation that he imagines murder and suicide, the narrator of Gombrowicz’s story follows his tormentor, observing his patterns of life and ultimately becoming so infatuated with the figure that he looses his mind; encountering the lawyer in the park he goes into a kind of wild, bacchic dance that reminds one a bit of Martha Graham’s mad dance of Medea. Revenge may be his, but he has lost life in the process, and, accordingly, ends up worse than Schnitzler’s insufferable soldier.

      A judge on a business visit to a landed gentry’s manor, finds his client dead, and is convinced that, although there are no outward signs, that it was a murder. “A Premediated Crime” is a Grombrowicz’s version of a murder mystery—with his usual inversion of reality: there is no true evidence of murder. Convinced the man did not die of a normal heart attack but was asphyxiated, the hero stays on with the family, suspecting each of them and uncovering some rather bizarre behavior and lies. Ultimately, it is determined that all the family members expected, perhaps even sought out, his death, but had locked themselves in their rooms at night. Under the pressure of suspicion, however, the son suddenly admits the murder. The judge has no alternative but to admit, however, that there is no evidence, no marks upon the deceased man’s neck. In an absurd reversal to childhood, the judge retreats to the wardrobe of the dead man’s room, as the son or, perhaps, another family member, enters to place the evidence of his finger marks upon the dead man’s neck. In a world of such absurd suspicion, Gombrowicz indicates, one cannot but become a criminal. Like Kafka’s K, in a society of suspicion even the guiltless are necessarily guilty.

      “Dinner at Countess Pavhoke’s” reiterates many of the themes of Ferdydurke, as a young commoner is taken into the world of high Society. Here too there is an absurd twisting of language, as the new guest attempts to match the poeticized sentiments of the other guests. Attending one of the countess’s “meatless evenings,” he quips “This soup’s deliciously filling--/And made, what’s more, without corpses or killing.”  But the other highly cultured guests gradually begin to reveal their coarseness and malice. As they eat their way through the supposedly delectable vegetarian dishes, the outsider and reader gradually began to comprehend the cook has served them up various courses of human flesh. Indeed, everything is “a matter of taste” if one understands that such acculturated “tastes” depend upon the destruction of the serving class.  


Los Angeles, November 15, 2005






Readers and critics generally agree that Gombrowicz’s masterpiece is Ferdydurke, while his other works are less interesting experimentations. My favorite of his fictions, however, is his last, Cosmos, a work I find to be far more troubling and yet deeply comic than his satiric portrait of an infantilized society. As Gombrowicz himself commented on this work: “Cosmos for me, is black, first and foremost black, something like a black churning current full of whirls, stoppages, flood waters, a black water carrying lots of refuse, and there is man gazing at it—gazing at it and swept by it—trying to decipher, to understand and to bind it into some kind of a whole…”

      The author aptly summarizes his fiction, but in typical Gombrowicz style he has, one recognizes, expressed truths with a bit of tongue-in-cheek. For, although it is most certainly the darkest of the writings under consideration in this essay, it is also the most grandly comic, a comedy that transpires without eliciting much outright laughter.

      If the characters of Ferdydurke and Bacacay predicate their actions upon a society devoted to servitude, so too does the “hero” of Cosmos—a young Polish student seeking a place of peace to study for his university exams—serves what he might express as a “higher cause.” This student does not intend to obey “others”—he has just had a terrible fight with his father and family, presumably over the direction of his career—but is determined to serve “the truth.” What he does not recognize, however, is that his university-learned “truths”—truths built upon rational connections of the human mind, associatively-constructed realities predicated on the sensate signifiers of the surrounding world—may reveal nothing and lead one down a labyrinth of inane relationships that result, in the end, in madness. If as a child I laughed at my grandmother when she proclaimed “If you think too much, you may go mad,” Gombrowicz helps us to perceive that indeed it is possible if one too carefully follows the modernist principles of psychologically realist literature and art.

     “Only connect,” proclaimed E. M. Foster (in the epigraph to his novel Howards End), one of modernist fictions most adamant proscribers. Witold takes that command at face value as he attempts to comprehend the world around him, leading to a despairing impasse that only a post-modernist-before-the-fact-writer such as Gombrowicz could have forseen.

      As the young student begins his search for housing in the small town Zakopane, he suddenly runs into an old acquaintance, Fuks, who suggests they share a place on the outskirts of town, where rooms are cheaper. Off they trudge into the countryside, resting momentarily in a thicket where, as they turn to leave, they discover a terrible “crime,” a dead sparrow hanging from a wire hooked onto a branch high in a tree, “its head to one side, its beak wide open.” The sparrow has clearly been killed and hung there for all to see. Who could have done such a deed? And why?

     The troubled students find a house advertising rooms nearby, and knocking at the door are greeted by a housekeeper with a strangely deformed mouth. They take a room, noticing in another empty room a young woman lying upon a mattress, her leg dangling across the metal mesh of the bed. Everything in this Zakophone farmhouse seems slightly awry and out of place to these young would-be intellects, who yet perceive that there is nothing outwardly strange about any of it.

    Joining the Wojty family for dinner, the young student and his companion experience what might be perceived as a normal evening meal as a series of strange events. As with Gombrowic’s dectective in his “A Premitated Crime,” for these would-be detectives the more things appear as normal, the stranger they become. There is a troubling connection between the “slithering” lips of the housekeeper Katasia and the “slippery” lips of the Wojty’s daughter, Lena. For the young student, in turn, these have some relationship he cannot explain to the nearby executed sparrow. Exhausted from his travels, he still cannot sleep, and discovers that Fuks has disappeared into the night. Has he snuck into Lena’s room, returned to observe the sparrow in the moonlight?

    The following day, the young man observes what appears to be an arrow upon the wall of the room adjoining their dining space; Fuks points out a similar arrow-like stain on the ceiling of their bedroom. Is someone trying to tell them something, point out a path to follow in their search for the “murderer” of the innocent beast?

    Late at night, with comically inventive tools, they “scientifically” attempt to follow the path of the arrow into the backyard, where they are led to an old building where, nearby, a stick is hanging? Is the hanging stick related to the hanging bird? A nearby whiffletree seems to be pointing in the same direction; is someone observing them from the windows of the house?

    These ridiculously tenuous connections lead the students on a maddening search for meaning which ultimately involves the entire family—the mother (dubbed Roly-Poly by the boys); the distracted and logorrheic husband, Leon; Lena and her husband Ludvik; as well as the mysterious Katasia—in an internal investigation which occasionally reveals each as lonely and somewhat desperate, but just as often leads to blind alleys which the narrator’s mind refuses to accept. He himself becomes engulfed in the strange events as he inexplicably strangles Lena’s pet cat and hangs it, connecting himself with the never-ending trail of “evidence.”

    Ultimately, as Leon leads them on a day trip into the nearby mountains, the rational world is replaced by more and more startlingly insane interconnections as the seemingly innocent family members and friends are caught up in their own webs of symbols and associations, ultimately leading to a strange night-time celebration of Leon’s only extra-martial affair—culminating in an incomprehensible private language and public masturbation—and the apparent suicide of Ludvick, discovered hanging from a tree. By this time the narrator has become as mad as any of his imaginary perpetrators, forcing his fingers into the mouth of the dead man —a mouth somehow connected in his psychologically tangled “plot” with Lena and Katshsia—and, later, stuffing them into the mouth of a priest the travelers have picked up on their voyage into these wilds.

     By fiction’s end the narrator has experienced a kind of mental overload of information, has attempted so desperately to connect the pieces of the sensate world that he can no longer function—a flood of information paralleling a sudden deluge in the natural world:

Loose, dense drops, we lift our heads, it suddenly poured buckets,
water came down in sheets, a sudden wind rose, panic, everyone
running for the nearest tree, but the pines are leaking, dripping,
dribbling, water, water, water, wet hair, backs, thighs, and just
ahead of us in the dark darkness a vertical fall of falling water
interrupted solely by despairing flashlights, then, in the light of
the flashlights, one could see it pour, fall, also streams, waterfalls,
lakes, it drips, spurts, splashes, lakes, seas, currents of gurgling
water and a bit of straw, stick, carried by water, disappearing....

Our young hero returns to Warsaw, to war with his father, problems, complications, difficulties….: in other words, he is forced to once more to deal with the “real” world of human interchange—a world often without answers, without the strained connections of a pretending art.   

Los Angeles, June 12, 2006



Return to Top



Copyright ©2006 by Douglas Messerli


Green Integer Review
   No. 1, Jan-Feb 2006
   No. 2, Mar-Apr 2006
   No. 3, May-July 2006
   No. 4, Aug-Oct 2006
   No. 5, Nov 2006
   No. 6, Dec 2006
   No. 7, Feb 2007
   No. 8, Mar-May 2007
   No. 9, Jun-Oct 2007
   No. 10 Nov-Dec 2007
 PIP Poet Biographies
 America Awards
 Mr. Knife, Miss Fork
 Recent Book Reviews

Green Integer | 6210 Wilshire Boulevard, Suite 211 | Los Angeles, CA 90048
(323) 857-1115 | Contact Us

©2006, Green Integer , All Rights Reserved