cheap generic cialis uk cialis paypal payment viagra tablets in india viagra power what does generic viagra look like levitra coupon can i buy viagra in singapore how much viagra is safe can you buy viagra over the counter in canada generic viagra suppliers natural viagra alternatives cialis getting pregnant buy generic cialis viagra for sale ireland walmart pharmacy viagra price tadalafil dosage cialis costco amazon viagra cialis in spain viagra pics viagra for sale without prescription viagra online nz how much is cialis with insurance non prescription viagra viagra super active plus cialis prices walmart viagra in spain viagra wikipedia vardenafil price getting viagra in ireland viagra tablets in pakistan tadalafil grapefruit tadalafil 20mg canada india generic viagra viagra online ireland how much does viagra cost in the uk levitra generic canada cialis tadalafil free female viagra buy viagra online canada cialis over the counter canada viagra recreational use cialis cipla how many viagra generic tadalafil uk viagra paypal payment viagra cipla cialis 100mg dosage cialis 1800 wikipedia viagra brand viagra viagra in hyderabad generic cialis paypal payment cialis cvs generic cialis from canada buy sildenafil viagra sale tadalafil tablets tadalafil 20mg real viagra generic names for viagra sildenafil citrate 100mg buying viagra in london viagra manchester shelf life viagra how much is a viagra prescription viagra substitute generic viagra discover card las vegas viagra cialis walmart viagra over the counter cialis gel tabs levitra professional cheapest viagra london viagra tablets for women sildenafil citrate viagra in boots best price cialis 20mg generic cialis in canada viagra meaning cialis 20mg reviews buy levitra from canada cialis at walmart brand cialis original viagra for sale levitra half life cipla viagra reviews pfizer viagra price viagra in costa rica tadalafil best price buy viagra online paypal viagra sign up generic viagra overnight shipping female viagra for sale white viagra pharmacy online ireland cialis viagra online edmonton does generic viagra look like generic cialis for daily use what is the shelf life of viagra viagra in northern ireland cialis yan etkileri price of viagra at walgreens cost of viagra at walmart pharmacy express viagra cialis 20mg canada viagra uk overnight viagra delivery does cialis really work cialis information levitra thailand cialis 36 hour online viagra online next day delivery female viagra in india walgreens viagra price cost of levitra at walmart how much viagra to take viagra shanghai viagra knock offs better than viagra how much is viagra at walmart viagra 100 viagra alternatives for sale buying viagra in tijuana buy viagra online next day delivery viagra online no prescription uk cheap tadalafil cialis pro viagra price walmart generic viagra 50mg viagra fast shipping wild viagra uk viagra co uk buying viagra online viagra vietnam brand cialis online viagra grapefruit interaction levitra 10mg hong kong viagra temple sildenafil viagra in dubai pharmacy cialis 100mg pills generic viagra from india viagra manila cialis cost canada sildenafil online canada viagra san diego buy cialis in singapore cialis 5 mg viagra jellies viagra for sale uk viagra jelly viagra sales nude viagra buy viagra london how to get viagra in ireland buy viagra montreal viagra europe cialis in dubai how to get viagra in singapore tijuana viagra vardenafil side effects canadian pharmacy viagra viagra jakarta to buy cialis in toronto viagra for men vardenafil india viagra price in chennai price of viagra tablets in india cialis super active female viagra to buy viagra light switch cialis headache relief viagra in hong kong cialis not working how much does viagra cost in canada viagra 100mg pfizer generic cialis from india viagra south africa can i buy viagra in toronto free viagra ebay viagra viagra headquarter toronto levitra professional reviews cialis forum how much does viagra cost in mexico viagra cost cialis wikipedia buy viagra with discover card brand levitra levitra walmart price viagra price at walmart most powerful viagra generic cialis next day delivery buy viagra in new york viagra high blood pressure sildenafil citrate 50mg brand cialis no prescription viagra in singapore ranbaxy levitra generic cialis overnight shipping liquid viagra cialis directions street value of viagra rite aid cialis price cialis 100mg walmart cialis price canadian viagra scam viagra no prescription paypal viagra in dubai deals cheap cialis next day delivery before after cialis viagra in sydney aurochem viagra super viagra viagra youtube walgreens cialis price over the counter cialis viagra dose cost of viagra what does viagra do viagra london drugs cialis daily reviews sildenafil online india tadalafil boots ireland viagra viagra pro viagra for sale no prescription gel viagra viagra nz viagra discount prices cutting cialis in half cialis 10mg dosage boots chemist viagra viagra available in chennai viagra blood pressure viagra online without prescription generic super cialis generic viagra from canada viagra malaysia viagra long term effects viagra casera sildenafil tablets viagra vancouver levitra grapefruit viagra germany levitra india vardenafil hcl 20mg tab viagra shelf life viagra denver fast acting viagra viagra price in uae buy chinese viagra viagra with paypal bangkok viagra female viagra cocktail india generic cialis tadalafil uk buying viagra in ireland viagra dapoxetine cialis price cialis mailing list cialis miami cialis prices viagra forum to buy viagra in glasgow how much is viagra in canada tadalafil soft gelatin capsules to buy viagra in new york how much does viagra cost viagra super active viagra in kuwait viagra soft 100mg online viagra reviews tadalafil generic canada buy levitra in canada viagra 100 mg best price cialis canada reviews i want to buy viagra levitra online canada cialis one a day levitra philippines viagra professional vs viagra super active viagra online uk paypal viagra sydney wal mart pharmacy prices cialis is viagra over the counter next day delivery cialis viagra with dapoxetine jelly viagra viagra before after how to get viagra in ontario topical sildenafil how much is levitra sildenafil alternatives buy viagra from india legal age to buy viagra viagra usa viagra in pakistan price viagra directions how to buy cialis em toronto cialis headache cost of cialis at costco viagra pricing viagra with discover card cialis in ireland cialis capsule price of cialis at walmart different types of viagra sildenafil soft tablets how to buy viagra in singapore pfizer viagra online viagra expiration date liquid viagra online cialis bayer viagra c20 cialis ie cialis rash inexpensive viagra cvs viagra price can i buy viagra in mexico buy viagra in pakistan brand viagra canada generic viagra for sale tadalafil professional viagra natural casera viagra sale singapore viagra next day delivery sildenafil gel cialis experiences cialis vs viagra viagra 200mg buy viagra singapore tadalafil usa to buy viagra in south korea cialis in mexico levitra in delhi generic tadalafil canada tadalafil brands youtube viagra viagra offer viagra tablets for men viagra online paypal uk viagra brand sildenafil soft tablets 100mg were to buy viagra cialis super active plus cialis 5mg price viagra articles viagra american express buy cialis no prescription buying viagra in france cheap brand viagra vardenafil duration gold viagra viagra in kuala lumpur organic cialis vardenafil hcl price of viagra in india levitra canada cialis blog viagra cocktail viagra professional scam viagra 100mg prices buy viagra with paypal tadalafil overnight delivery how many viagra can you take in a day generic viagra free shipping does online viagra work levitra nedir who sells viagra viagra under tongue substitute of viagra in india buy viagra in hong kong cialis super active review viagra in shanghai viagra instructions for use c 20 il viagra viagra pay with pay pal does viagra really work buy viagra online no prescription tadalafil cheapest viagra singapore cheapest viagra cheap viagra uk paypal cialis before after brand cialis for sale viagra gel for sale cipla cialis viagra glasgow generic viagra fast shipping buy viagra in calgary viagra for sale in spain cialis canadian pharmacy shoppers drug mart cialis singapore viagra viagra paypal checkout cialis soft 20mg viagra before after pics generic viagra india viagra boots london viagra greece viagra online reviews female cialis viagra cyprus how much do viagra pills cost buying viagra in singapore viagra for sale in dublin to buy viagra in hyderabad how much is viagra worth cialis pills for sale viagra online how much should viagra cost pfizer viagra viagra testimonials vardenafil citrate cialis cost per pill india viagra sunrise tadalafil generic viagra paypal buy cialis from india compare generic cialis prices cvs cialis what does viagra look like viagra best price buy viagra paypal viagra uk next day delivery cialis sale online viagra japan cialis soft tabs review viagra online pay with paypal how much does cialis cost in canada buy cialis with paypal viagra in oil viagra dose size before after viagra cialis uk street value for viagra cialis 5mg reviews long term effects of viagra viagra price in delhi boots viagra online viagra boots mens viagra cialis espanol best price tadalafil viagra super active vs viagra professional viagra benefits viagra hk levitra 20mg tablets viagra fedex generic viagra reviews cialis ebay to buy viagra in shanghai levitra prices walmart sildenafil 50 mg buy tadalafil cialis dosage instructions viagra atlanta buy viagra online with paypal generic viagra online reviews generic tadalafil viagra in stores belize viagra viagra pills cialis free offer boots cialis viagra cheap bayer cialis viagra 50mg canada when will generic viagra be available viagra sri lanka cialis 10mg tablets viagra substitute uk walmart viagra price buy viagra toronto cialis 5 mg daily mexico viagra how many viagra can you take price of levitra at walmart how long does cialis last cost of cialis at walmart viagra gels canadian pharmacy online cialis viagra by cipla online viagra review generic viagra uk viagra in south korea cialis sales levitra in windsor cialis south africa vardenafil dosage pfizer viagra packaging overnight shipping viagra viagra in sri lanka viagra overnight shipping how to obtain viagra pharmacy sildenafil how much is viagra in boots levitra female viagra buying viagra in spain grapefruit viagra interaction canada pink viagra viagra brisbane viagra headache viagra canada no prescription is generic cialis safe buy female viagra levitra price at walmart cialis price in malaysia viagra 100mg price shelf life of viagra mechanism of viagra cipla cialis review cialis soft tabs vs cialis synthesis sildenafil cheap viagra for sale cialis dosage 40 mg is viagra legal in ireland viagra ie buy viagra dublin generic cialis review viagra gel caps viagra paypal uk pink viagra viagra online australia to buy viagra in kuala lumpur viagra forum canada viagra price uk levitra kaufen viagra professional review next day viagra delivery brand viagra online how much is viagra on prescription levitra paypal amsterdam viagra sildenafil citrate canada levitra forum cipla viagra viagra vs cialis how much is viagra without insurance cialis original how much is viagra in south africa cialis capsules viagra half life sildenafil tablets 100 mg viagra no japao cipla viagra review cialis en espanol viagra toronto paypal payment for viagra cheap viagra pills viagra online cyprus generic levitra from india viagra 100mg for sale walmart tadalafil cialis dapoxetine how to get viagra wikipedia cialis cialis pink vardenafil hydrochloride viagra cost walmart viagra types viagra sachets cialis for sale in canada levitra in india female pink viagra 100mg pills cialis tablets boots viagra london cialis ontario cialis ireland online pharmacy viagra 25mg cialis super active 20mg cialis kontraindikacije cialis generic canada buy viagra in dublin cialis walgreens price cialis for young men cialis india cost of cialis without insurance viagra sales uk genericviagra me uk generic viagra price viagra toronto canada tadalafil soft gelatin capsule herbal viagra viagra cost at walmart brand viagra for sale viagra online paypal viagra paypal viagra in india hyderabad sildenafil canada sildenafil jelly best place to buy viagra online sildenafil synthesis why does cialis use bathtubs female pink viagra red viagra super cialis viagra tablets for sale sildenafil pronunciation tadalafil para que serve how to buy viagra in toronto sildenafil powder viagra from mexico pfizer viagra for sale sildenafil india viagra kuala lumpur viagra equivalent cialis bathtub symbolism viagra price in india sildenafil citrate 50mg uk generic levitra canada viagra for sale in canada plant vigra how much is cialis at walgreens levitra professional viagra 25mg online buy female viagra uk viagra super active reviews generic cialis 200mg buy viagra online ireland buy viagra online is the cialis from canada any good substitute for viagra viagra alcohol side effects powerful viagra viagra available in delhi buy viagra edmonton buy viagra in london vardenafil 10mg levitra vs viagra Erectile Dysfunction viagra hong kong viagra canada pharmacy scam how much is viagra in the philippines aurochem laboratories generic cialis reviews viagra spray female viagra cocktail recipe viagra pills for men buying viagra online ireland to buy viagra in calgary costco cialis price kuala lumpur viagra what do viagra pills look like buy levitra online canada viagra casero buy viagra in delhi viagra in mexico cvs viagra cialis walgreens viagra soft tabs review viagra hq toronto cheap viagra for sale uk female cialis review bayviagra levitra pro generic cialis paypal viagra building levitra 20mg dosage cialis bangkok does walmart sell viagra viagra costa rica viagra capsules how much viagra is safe to take cialis canada viagra for girls viagra deals cialis 40 mg buy viagra online no prescription uk to get viagra in toronto viagra prices in pakistan how much is viagra on the street spanish viagra how much does viagra cost in ireland buy viagra using paypal viagra mailing list viagra oil solubility of sildenafil best over the counter viagra buy viagra new york levitra review viagra reviews does walmart have viagra pfizer viagra reviews viagra in india price buy viagra japan brand viagra 100mg viagra overdose sildenafil citrate online viagra malaysia pharmacy cialis spray vardenafil tablets viagra online india is viagra safe viagra cost per pill viagra long term side effects how much is viagra how does sildenafil work viagra in uae strong viagra benefits of cialis super strength viagra viagra prices at walmart viagra results generic viagra review pink viagra for sale viagra without prescription viagra 100mg tablets buy viagra generic viagra uk paypal generic levitra india free cialis viagra under the tongue viagra tube viagra for sale in south africa cialis cost viagra online boots walmart pharmacy viagra to buy viagra in manila levitra super active plus price of viagra in delhi buy cialis in canada viagra mechanism cost of viagra in mexico viagra ireland paypal cialis generic viagra canada buy generic viagra using paypal cost of viagra in chennai new cialis viagra generic date different type of viagra levitra 20mg viagra dosage instructions everyday cialis cialis mexico viagra kako deluje viagra professional 100mg ingredients in cialis buying viagra in germany cialis super active reviews viagra in chennai cialis price walmart sildenafil alcohol sildenafil from india viagra price comparisons viagra wiki cialis 10mg vs 20mg how much does cialis cost with insurance cheap pfizer viagra online what is the street value of viagra generic viagra price comparison cialis professional uk best over the counter viagra substitute brand viagra no prescription viagra for sale philippines sildenafil viagra india price generic cialis 100mg genuine viagra for sale to buy viagra in dubai tadalafil generic is cialis over the counter in canada cialis for daily use viagra quick delivery can you take viagra cialis together buy viagra online australia brand cialis canada cost of viagra in canada cialis vs viagra reviews cheapest viagra online viagra for sell viagra for sale in usa kako deluje viagra cialis online canada cialis daily cost can i buy viagra in ireland female viagra pill sildenafil 100mg canadian how much is viagra in uk daily use cialis can i get viagra in ireland viagra price canada to buy viagra in hong kong what does viagra cost at walmart best deals on viagra viagra nyc best generic viagra reviews synthesis of sildenafil viagra soft tabs uk viagra uae viagra soft gels viagra tablets price in pakistan calgary viagra levitra at walmart viagra tablets in hyderabad cialis coupon viagra fast delivery brand viagra offers walmart levitra price how much does viagra cost without insurance online pharmacy viagra cheap viagra 100mg herbal viagra dublin costco cialis viagra in toronto how long for cialis to work can you buy viagra without prescription india cialis cialis price at walmart cialis uk next day delivery buy viagra in toronto meaning of viagra viagra discover card levitra shelf life viagra light viagra fast viagra spain over the counter generic viagra tadalafil canada buy viagra from usa how to buy viagra viagra in dubai cialis via paypal cialis cost in canada vardenafil duration of action viagra canada viagra dosage viagra for sale canada tadalafil over the counter boots viagra cialis headache remedy buy cialis generic cialis reviews how much does viagra cost with a prescription viagra on line female viagra 100mg how much does cialis cost buy viagra discover card levitra price walmart viagra tablets in chennai cipla generic cialis online viagra ireland what does a viagra pill look like natural viagra viagra with no prescription viagra brochure cialis expiration date generic viagra next day delivery mygra sildenafil viagra japao viagra grapefruit cialis gel generic tadalafil review over the counter viagra substitute viagra side effects buy strong viagra tadalafil generic india sildenafil tablets 100mg viagra 50mg is cialis better than viagra next day delivery viagra viagra uk boots sildenafil genfar how much is cialis cialis daily generic viagra substitute over the counter costa rica viagra otc cialis viagra sales in canada viagra philippines buy liquid viagra sildenafil 100mg aurochem sildenafil generic levitra uk cialis best price cialis from india is there a viagra for women tadalafil soft tablets discount cialis canada bayer levitra cialis pills viagra ebay sildenafil price walmart pharmacy cialis price cialis benefits buy viagra online usa what do viagra tablets look like viagra versus cialis vardenafil uk c20 viagra 36 hour cialis online viagra costs per pill shoppers drug mart viagra cialis paypal viagra copyright buy viagra in cyprus cialis c20 buy generic cialis online uk viagra las vegas buy viagra in sri lanka how much is viagra in mexico canadian pharmacy viagra scam boots viagra supplier cialis malaysia cost of viagra 100mg buy viagra in mexico buying viagra in hong kong viagra tablets viagra in pakistan viagra montreal buy viagra in ireland best viagra deals cialis dosage para que serve tadalafil viagra 100mg pills cialis singapore generic viagra ireland viagra 50mg 100mg cialis bathtub meaning cialis for sale online is it illegal to buy viagra online viagra online canada pay for viagra with paypal online viagra sales how much is viagra with insurance buy cialis paypal levitra price walgreens generic levitra reviews walmart viagra pricing viagra alternatives how much does viagra cost with insurance cialis import cialis reviews sildenafil temple viagra alternative levitra vs cialis viagra for sale in london singapore viagra legal buy viagra in germany mexico cialis buy viagra spain buy viagra in dubai tadalafil sunrise to buy viagra in singapore viagra user reviews 36 hour cialis viagra perth viagra in srilanka viagra price cost of viagra per pill viagra for sale in uk pink cialis viagra prices shelf life cialis london drugs viagra viagra price in dubai buy cialis online paypal buy viagra in shanghai viagra kuwait sildenafil liquid viagra for women in india generic cialis mexican viagra ontario cialis with dapoxetine how long cialis take to work levitra dosage cialis jelly viagra on ebay sildenafil 50mg viagra street price how much viagra cost viagra dublin how much is viagra in ireland viagra indianapolis levitra price comparison cvs pharmacy cialis canada tadalafil cialis 50mg sildenafil citrate 100mg canada viagra in denver brand levitra 20mg sildenafil citrate tablets 100mg how does viagra work dubai viagra viagra calgary buy cialis online with paypal viagra suppliers generic viagra mastercard viagra in cyprus viagra for women for sale viagra en espanol what is cialis used for super viagra plus how long before cialis kicks in boots the chemist viagra cialis bayer 20 different kinds of viagra generic viagra professional 100mg cialis wiki cheap viagra next day delivery levitra plus can you buy viagra over the counter in spain cialis generic walmart pharmacy cialis cialis side effects viagra jelly uk viagra 50mg online viagra coupons to buy viagra in edmonton tadalafil india types of viagra viagra pay with paypal viagra orange county buy viagra online using paypal buy viagra through paypal buy viagra in spain edmonton viagra cialis lilly sildenafil solubility viagra shipped from canada viagra in japan viagra india online levitra etkileri viagra for women viagra mexico cutting viagra in half grapefruit viagra viagra kgr 100 costco pharmacy cialis cialis online paypal viagra online no prescription is viagra legal in singapore cialis professional 20 mg levitra duration how much is cialis without insurance cialis for sale sildenafil citrate 100mg uk generic viagra india safe shelf life of cialis viagra prices cvs can i buy viagra with paypal viagra gel sachets viagra tablets for sale uk viagra ingredients buy viagra in singapore cialis 20mg cialis ireland online viagra for sale in ireland viagra generic paypal sri lanka viagra cialis 10mg price sildenafil dosage cialis 5mg viagra professional vs viagra brand name viagra herbal viagra au original viagra pfizer super active viagra sildenafil troche viagra gel uk viagra substitutes over the counter tadalafil generic uk walmart viagra is generic viagra safe generic cialis is generic viagra real super viagra uk discover card viagra viagra 100mg cialis 10mg vardenafil hci cialis canada online pharmacy viagra shoppers drug mart cialis at rite aid cheap cialis in canada generic viagra scam sildenafil generic vardenafil cialis australia sildenafil dapoxetine levitra generic viagra tablets in bangalore kamagra sildenafil buy generic cialis in canada generic cialis india levitra generico walmart sell viagra is viagra legal in australia viagra discount coupon how much is levitra at walmart viagra not working levitra side effects tadalafil 5mg viagra price in malaysia walmart price for cialis deals on viagra what schedule is viagra cialis jelly sachet viagra pay by paypal viagra paypal canada how much does viagra cost at walmart viagra soft buy viagra without prescription walmart cialis cialis prices cvs viagra flavored 100mg buy viagra with pay pal how to ask your doctor for viagra cialis etkileri can i get viagra in chennai levitra professional online vardenafil canada buy generic viagra paypal viagra cialis side effects in men viagra melbourne cialis professional vs cialis viagra blindness symptoms how long does viagra last viagra c20 cialis how many viagra pills can i take cialis shelf life sildenafil ireland 36 hr cialis viagra packaging viagra in hindi walmart levitra shanghai viagra cialis liquid viagra price comparison viagra soft tabs cheap viagra levitra tablet generic viagra safety does generic cialis work tadalafil cialis 200mg viagra in south africa what is the shelf life of cialis viagra for sale australia viagra liquid buying viagra in dubai chinese viagra cialis packaging buy viagra ireland american viagra viagra edmonton cialis professional best generic viagra shelf life of levitra to buy viagra in stores buy generic cialis uk viagra dp cialis testimonials buy viagra online in ireland how long does cialis take to work what is viagra jelly cialis dubai buy cialis in toronto viagra at shoppers drug mart buying viagra ireland buy viagra online with paypal cheap viagra for sale cheap buy cialis ireland female viagra canada viagra in delhi over the counter viagra cialis online viagra in dublin viagra professional wholesale viagra is generic levitra safe viagra without subscription viagra tablets price in india tijuana pharmacy viagra viagra in calgary viagra for women in hindi viagra generic pfizer viagra price in india viagra voucher viagra price in sri lanka sildenafil generic india sildenafil aurochem proviagra long term side effects of viagra viagra payment paypal buy vardenafil uk levitra testimonials best generic viagra review viagra price in pakistan vardenafil aurochem cialis super active plus reviews viagra 100mg price walmart viagra not working anymore buy viagra pay with paypal cost of viagra without insurance cialis coupon online viagra pills for sale viagra northern ireland how many years can you take viagra viagra street value dapoxetine cialis viagra de buy viagra per pill cialis walmart price viagra next day delivery usa viagra 100 mg pfizer walmart prices for viagra levitra professional uk try viagra for free viagra cost canada generic viagra alternatives levitra ireland cialis from mexico how much does a viagra prescription cost cialis spain cialis england levitra malaysia vardenafil generico cialis instructions viagra alcohol discount viagra best price on cialis viagra gold how much does viagra cost at target cheap cialis viagra pills look like cialis 20mg dosage cost of viagra tablets in india vigra paypal viagra viagra for sale viagra amsterdam viagra tijuana viagra pfizer cialis daily online levitra cost walmart cialis europe cialis over the counter cialis generic uk viagra no prescription levitra hong kong buy cialis using paypal viagra gel sale cialis japan does generic viagra work buying viagra in costa rica viagra super active uk viagra in london viagra quotes viagra prices walmart price of viagra in mexico cialis professional wikipedia pink viagra for women generic cialis uk get viagra ireland vardenafil cipla viagra online without prescription reviews why does viagra cost so much generic viagra offers can i buy viagra in dubai dp viagra cialis price comparison cialis daily cialis 20mg price lowest price on cialis levitra 20 mg is generic cialis from india safe can you buy viagra over the counter viagra professional uk levitra meaning aurochem cialis buy viagra in france cialis overnight shipping cialis ireland female viagra uk cialis tablets for sale viagra price in indian rupees newsletter viagra viagra via paypal sildenafil citrate uk much does viagra cost walmart viagra gel sachets uk viagra at walmart female viagra review how many viagra can i take viagra in cape town viagra directions for use ebay cialis cialis prices at walmart kgr 100 viagra tadalafil tablets 20 mg viagra gel viagra headache cure levitra reviews real viagra online viagra uk paypal how many viagra should i take viagra ireland online buy viagra in malaysia viagra results before after viagra sales online wild viagra tadalafil from india love viagra bay viagra to buy viagra viagra power 100 viagra coupon viagra newsletter pharmacy express viagra cialis levitra vpxl viagra at boots levitra price viagra canada paypal levitra yan etkileri levitra cost at walmart girls viagra viagra natural viagra email list tadalafil ingredients viagra cape town levitra in thailand viagra cvs tadalafil chewable viagra dubai what is viagra gold before after viagra pics viagra in ireland viagra buy paypal buy 36 hour cialis mechanism of action of viagra liquid viagra uk viagra costs cialis in toronto levitra 20mg price viagra for sale paypal viagra availability in delhi cyprus viagra tadalafil overnight to buy viagra in toronto tadalafil overdose pfizer viagra 100mg sign up for viagra cheap cialis uk to buy viagra in ireland tadalafil bestellen viagra in malaysia viagra instructions viagra in nigeria how much does cialis cost without insurance viagra free shipping levitra jelly buying viagra in mexico viagra australia 6 5 9 0 Green Integer Books, Green Integer Review 5, Douglas Messerli on Witold Gombrowicz

Green Integer | 6210 Wilshire Boulevard, Suite 211 | Los Angeles, CA 90048 | (323) 857-1115 | Contact Us

Essays, Manifestos, Statements, Speeches, Maxims, Epistles, Diaristic Jottings, Narratives, Natural histories, Poems, Plays, Performances, Ramblings, Revelations, and all such ephemera as may appear necessary to bring society into a slight tremolo of confusion and fright at least.

Complete Catalog
Green Integer
On Net
Recent Titles
Best Sellers

Green Integer Review

No. 5 (Nov 2006)
Poetry & Fiction, Interviews, Essays & Reviews, Bios, Links
Douglas Messerli, Editor

Douglas Messerli

The Serving Class [on Witold Gombrowicz]

The Serving Class

Witold Gombrowicz, Ferdydurke (Warsaw: Towarzystwo Wydawnicze Rój, 1937).
Witold Gombrowicz, Ferdydurke, translated by Eric Mosbacher (New York: Harcourt, Brace and World, 1961).
Witold Gombrowicz, Kosmos (Kraków: Wydawnictwo Literackie, 1986)
Witold Gombrowicz, Ferdydurke, translated by Danuta Borchardt (New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 2000).
Witold Gombrowicz, Pamiętnikz okresu dojrzewania (Poland, 1933).
Witold Gombrowicz, Bakakaj (Kraków: Wydawnictwo Literackie, 1957).
Witold Gombrowicz, Bacacay, translated from the Polish by Bill Johnston (New York: Archipelago Books, 2002).
Witold Gombrowicaz, Cosmos, translated from the Polish by Danuta Borchardt (New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 2005).


Gombrowicz’s great masterwork of Polish literature, Ferdydurke was published in Warsaw in 1937, and over the years has been twice translated into English. The current edition, published by Yale University Press, seems destined to become the authoritative edition—although some critics have argued that the changes most put forward by the new translator Danuta Borchardt are not that central to the reading; and for some readers the favorite edition remains Eric Mosbacher’s translation of the early 1960s. Since I don’t read Polish, and have forgotten my experience of first reading, I’ll offer no opinion on this issue.

     No one seems to know the exact source or meaning of the novel’s title—which has no particular meaning or obvious association in Polish culture; some argue it was appropriated from Sinclair Lewis’ Babbitt character, Freddy Durkee. It hardly matters, for Gombrowicz’s tale is centered on three interconnected stories of institutional domination and the infantilization of the individual that follows. In the first section, Joey, an adult in his 30s is suddenly abducted by his former school-teacher, T. Plimko, “a doctor of philosophy and a professor, in reality just a schoolteacher, a cultural philologue from Kraków, short and light, skinny, bald, wearing spectacles, pin-striped trousers, a jacket, yellow buckskin shoes, his fingernails large and yellow.” Joey is taken away and returned to sixth grade, where—in Lewis Carroll-like absurdity—he towers among his fellow students without anyone seeming to notice his age or stature. Through a series of verbal abuses, ritualistic mutterings (which includes the conjugation of Latin adverbs and statements like “…We teachers love you little chickies, chirp, chirp, chirp, you know: ‘suffer the little ones to come unto me.’”) Joey is imprisoned and belittled into submission at his new institution.

     Gombrowicz hilariously mocks not only the teaching in this absurd world, but the students who through their language have grotesquely twisted their thinking to the empty logic of the system: “And what perfidious whims and airs have perchance caused the person of my dear Sir to present himself so tardily at this dump of a school?” chirps one of the students. Another laughs idiotically, saying “Could it be that amours for a damsel have delayed our colegus venerabilis? Is this perchance why our presumptuous colegus so languidus est?” Given such meaningless jargon, the linguistic battles between students Syphon and Kneadus become a world of hyper-speech that is a good match to our cypertalk and advertising jargon of today.

     Just when it appears that Joey could not be further humiliated, he is sent to live in the home of a bourgeois family, the Youngbloods, where he falls ridiculously in love with the daughter, who as a “modern schoolgirl,” creates a pattern of  perpetual seduction and punishment of her would-be suitor. To get back at the girl and family, Joey plots to entrap his professor in the girl’s room, which ends in an absurd free-for-all on the floor of the room where she has been discovered by her parents with a young student and Plimko both. Humiliation and denigration has again won the day, and Joey is left with no alternative but to escape.

     His escape with fellow student Kneadus to the country, however, bodes no better for the future. For Kneadus has suddenly transformed his love of young serving girls to a homoerotic search for young farmhands. Joey and Kneadus retreat to the farm of Joey’s uncle and aunt, where indeed Kneadus finds the object of his desire, much to the consternation of the elderly couple, Joey, and the young valet,Valek. Joey’s attempt to take Kneadus from the house in a final escape ends in perhaps the funniest scene in the book, as the master of the house, hearing Joey, Kneadus and Valek on the escape, enters the room—gun in hand. Lights out, they remain frozen in position as the farmer searches for them, soon joined by Joey’s cousins—who, in turn, all freeze in panic as the butler enters with a paraffin lamp. Each individual, terrified of discovery, pretends a kind of nonexistence until the room is filled, Gombrowicz hints, with a world of inexplicable ghosts.

     Before one can have a world of absurd bureaucracy, one must have a world of individuals willing to submit.

     In Bacacay, made up of sections from Ferdydurke and seven earlier short stories, we see the roots of Gombrowicz’s thinking and perceive the grotesque humor which already characterized his writing before the great novel. “Lawyer Kraykowski’s Dancer” begins very similarly to Arthur Schnitzler’s short novel, Lieutenant Gustl: a man at a concert is insulted by another. But while Schnitzler’s Lieutenant suffers such indignation that he imagines murder and suicide, the narrator of Gombrowicz’s story follows his tormentor, observing his patterns of life and ultimately becoming so infatuated with the figure that he looses his mind; encountering the lawyer in the park he goes into a kind of wild, bacchic dance that reminds one a bit of Martha Graham’s mad dance of Medea. Revenge may be his, but he has lost life in the process, and, accordingly, ends up worse than Schnitzler’s insufferable soldier.

      A judge on a business visit to a landed gentry’s manor, finds his client dead, and is convinced that, although there are no outward signs, that it was a murder. “A Premediated Crime” is a Grombrowicz’s version of a murder mystery—with his usual inversion of reality: there is no true evidence of murder. Convinced the man did not die of a normal heart attack but was asphyxiated, the hero stays on with the family, suspecting each of them and uncovering some rather bizarre behavior and lies. Ultimately, it is determined that all the family members expected, perhaps even sought out, his death, but had locked themselves in their rooms at night. Under the pressure of suspicion, however, the son suddenly admits the murder. The judge has no alternative but to admit, however, that there is no evidence, no marks upon the deceased man’s neck. In an absurd reversal to childhood, the judge retreats to the wardrobe of the dead man’s room, as the son or, perhaps, another family member, enters to place the evidence of his finger marks upon the dead man’s neck. In a world of such absurd suspicion, Gombrowicz indicates, one cannot but become a criminal. Like Kafka’s K, in a society of suspicion even the guiltless are necessarily guilty.

      “Dinner at Countess Pavhoke’s” reiterates many of the themes of Ferdydurke, as a young commoner is taken into the world of high Society. Here too there is an absurd twisting of language, as the new guest attempts to match the poeticized sentiments of the other guests. Attending one of the countess’s “meatless evenings,” he quips “This soup’s deliciously filling--/And made, what’s more, without corpses or killing.”  But the other highly cultured guests gradually begin to reveal their coarseness and malice. As they eat their way through the supposedly delectable vegetarian dishes, the outsider and reader gradually began to comprehend the cook has served them up various courses of human flesh. Indeed, everything is “a matter of taste” if one understands that such acculturated “tastes” depend upon the destruction of the serving class.  


Los Angeles, November 15, 2005






Readers and critics generally agree that Gombrowicz’s masterpiece is Ferdydurke, while his other works are less interesting experimentations. My favorite of his fictions, however, is his last, Cosmos, a work I find to be far more troubling and yet deeply comic than his satiric portrait of an infantilized society. As Gombrowicz himself commented on this work: “Cosmos for me, is black, first and foremost black, something like a black churning current full of whirls, stoppages, flood waters, a black water carrying lots of refuse, and there is man gazing at it—gazing at it and swept by it—trying to decipher, to understand and to bind it into some kind of a whole…”

      The author aptly summarizes his fiction, but in typical Gombrowicz style he has, one recognizes, expressed truths with a bit of tongue-in-cheek. For, although it is most certainly the darkest of the writings under consideration in this essay, it is also the most grandly comic, a comedy that transpires without eliciting much outright laughter.

      If the characters of Ferdydurke and Bacacay predicate their actions upon a society devoted to servitude, so too does the “hero” of Cosmos—a young Polish student seeking a place of peace to study for his university exams—serves what he might express as a “higher cause.” This student does not intend to obey “others”—he has just had a terrible fight with his father and family, presumably over the direction of his career—but is determined to serve “the truth.” What he does not recognize, however, is that his university-learned “truths”—truths built upon rational connections of the human mind, associatively-constructed realities predicated on the sensate signifiers of the surrounding world—may reveal nothing and lead one down a labyrinth of inane relationships that result, in the end, in madness. If as a child I laughed at my grandmother when she proclaimed “If you think too much, you may go mad,” Gombrowicz helps us to perceive that indeed it is possible if one too carefully follows the modernist principles of psychologically realist literature and art.

     “Only connect,” proclaimed E. M. Foster (in the epigraph to his novel Howards End), one of modernist fictions most adamant proscribers. Witold takes that command at face value as he attempts to comprehend the world around him, leading to a despairing impasse that only a post-modernist-before-the-fact-writer such as Gombrowicz could have forseen.

      As the young student begins his search for housing in the small town Zakopane, he suddenly runs into an old acquaintance, Fuks, who suggests they share a place on the outskirts of town, where rooms are cheaper. Off they trudge into the countryside, resting momentarily in a thicket where, as they turn to leave, they discover a terrible “crime,” a dead sparrow hanging from a wire hooked onto a branch high in a tree, “its head to one side, its beak wide open.” The sparrow has clearly been killed and hung there for all to see. Who could have done such a deed? And why?

     The troubled students find a house advertising rooms nearby, and knocking at the door are greeted by a housekeeper with a strangely deformed mouth. They take a room, noticing in another empty room a young woman lying upon a mattress, her leg dangling across the metal mesh of the bed. Everything in this Zakophone farmhouse seems slightly awry and out of place to these young would-be intellects, who yet perceive that there is nothing outwardly strange about any of it.

    Joining the Wojty family for dinner, the young student and his companion experience what might be perceived as a normal evening meal as a series of strange events. As with Gombrowic’s dectective in his “A Premitated Crime,” for these would-be detectives the more things appear as normal, the stranger they become. There is a troubling connection between the “slithering” lips of the housekeeper Katasia and the “slippery” lips of the Wojty’s daughter, Lena. For the young student, in turn, these have some relationship he cannot explain to the nearby executed sparrow. Exhausted from his travels, he still cannot sleep, and discovers that Fuks has disappeared into the night. Has he snuck into Lena’s room, returned to observe the sparrow in the moonlight?

    The following day, the young man observes what appears to be an arrow upon the wall of the room adjoining their dining space; Fuks points out a similar arrow-like stain on the ceiling of their bedroom. Is someone trying to tell them something, point out a path to follow in their search for the “murderer” of the innocent beast?

    Late at night, with comically inventive tools, they “scientifically” attempt to follow the path of the arrow into the backyard, where they are led to an old building where, nearby, a stick is hanging? Is the hanging stick related to the hanging bird? A nearby whiffletree seems to be pointing in the same direction; is someone observing them from the windows of the house?

    These ridiculously tenuous connections lead the students on a maddening search for meaning which ultimately involves the entire family—the mother (dubbed Roly-Poly by the boys); the distracted and logorrheic husband, Leon; Lena and her husband Ludvik; as well as the mysterious Katasia—in an internal investigation which occasionally reveals each as lonely and somewhat desperate, but just as often leads to blind alleys which the narrator’s mind refuses to accept. He himself becomes engulfed in the strange events as he inexplicably strangles Lena’s pet cat and hangs it, connecting himself with the never-ending trail of “evidence.”

    Ultimately, as Leon leads them on a day trip into the nearby mountains, the rational world is replaced by more and more startlingly insane interconnections as the seemingly innocent family members and friends are caught up in their own webs of symbols and associations, ultimately leading to a strange night-time celebration of Leon’s only extra-martial affair—culminating in an incomprehensible private language and public masturbation—and the apparent suicide of Ludvick, discovered hanging from a tree. By this time the narrator has become as mad as any of his imaginary perpetrators, forcing his fingers into the mouth of the dead man —a mouth somehow connected in his psychologically tangled “plot” with Lena and Katshsia—and, later, stuffing them into the mouth of a priest the travelers have picked up on their voyage into these wilds.

     By fiction’s end the narrator has experienced a kind of mental overload of information, has attempted so desperately to connect the pieces of the sensate world that he can no longer function—a flood of information paralleling a sudden deluge in the natural world:

Loose, dense drops, we lift our heads, it suddenly poured buckets,
water came down in sheets, a sudden wind rose, panic, everyone
running for the nearest tree, but the pines are leaking, dripping,
dribbling, water, water, water, wet hair, backs, thighs, and just
ahead of us in the dark darkness a vertical fall of falling water
interrupted solely by despairing flashlights, then, in the light of
the flashlights, one could see it pour, fall, also streams, waterfalls,
lakes, it drips, spurts, splashes, lakes, seas, currents of gurgling
water and a bit of straw, stick, carried by water, disappearing....

Our young hero returns to Warsaw, to war with his father, problems, complications, difficulties….: in other words, he is forced to once more to deal with the “real” world of human interchange—a world often without answers, without the strained connections of a pretending art.   

Los Angeles, June 12, 2006



Return to Top



Copyright ©2006 by Douglas Messerli


Green Integer Review
   No. 1, Jan-Feb 2006
   No. 2, Mar-Apr 2006
   No. 3, May-July 2006
   No. 4, Aug-Oct 2006
   No. 5, Nov 2006
   No. 6, Dec 2006
   No. 7, Feb 2007
   No. 8, Mar-May 2007
   No. 9, Jun-Oct 2007
   No. 10 Nov-Dec 2007
 PIP Poet Biographies
 America Awards
 Mr. Knife, Miss Fork
 Recent Book Reviews

Green Integer | 6210 Wilshire Boulevard, Suite 211 | Los Angeles, CA 90048
(323) 857-1115 | Contact Us

©2006, Green Integer , All Rights Reserved