viagra available in chennai cialis dosage what does a viagra pill look like price of viagra in india cialis not working how long does cialis take to work liquid viagra online buy cialis paypal viagra in denver how to get viagra in ontario how many viagra shelf life of levitra viagra price in pakistan cialis 10mg dosage viagra alternative viagra price in malaysia viagra in japan viagra for sale in dublin viagra for sale in south africa generic viagra tadalafil chewable buy cialis using paypal viagra price in chennai tadalafil canada sildenafil ireland levitra online canada buy viagra online paypal vardenafil dosage viagra price in dubai viagra in dubai to buy viagra in hong kong what does viagra do viagra online next day delivery viagra professional scam cialis for sale online viagra mexico cialis online pfizer viagra online viagra paypal uk singapore viagra legal free female viagra viagra gel for sale what do viagra pills look like levitra generico viagra dubai cialis professional uk to buy viagra in toronto buy cialis no prescription dp viagra to buy viagra in manila tijuana viagra street value of viagra is viagra over the counter generic cialis 200mg tadalafil overnight delivery cialis cost per pill costa rica viagra viagra cape town viagra in ireland does walmart sell viagra pfizer viagra price viagra indianapolis sildenafil tablets 100 mg viagra online without prescription viagra forum cialis canadian pharmacy viagra no japao how many years can you take viagra what does viagra look like viagra cost generic viagra india how much does viagra cost in mexico viagra edmonton cialis packaging viagra europe when will generic viagra be available viagra in pakistan price cialis 20mg canada tadalafil dosage cialis at rite aid sildenafil alternatives how much does viagra cost with insurance viagra payment paypal cialis 200mg buy viagra per pill buy viagra in germany kako deluje viagra how to buy viagra viagra 100mg generic cialis for daily use original viagra for sale viagra price in sri lanka viagra newsletter cialis in dubai buy viagra in dublin price of viagra at walgreens viagra jelly vardenafil duration generic viagra from canada levitra jelly buy viagra online using paypal cialis instructions viagra spain over the counter cialis india buy viagra online with paypal cipla cialis levitra paypal viagra montreal generic viagra for sale viagra voucher buy female viagra viagra directions generic levitra uk how much viagra is safe to take before after cialis cialis miami viagra philippines pfizer viagra packaging buy viagra singapore viagra australia tadalafil 20mg canada kgr 100 viagra viagra no prescription meaning of viagra viagra online paypal how much is cialis viagra at shoppers drug mart mexico cialis new cialis sildenafil online how to buy cialis em toronto how many viagra should i take cialis daily cost viagra sachets viagra half life viagra for sale paypal how to buy viagra in singapore super cialis cialis shelf life viagra headquarter toronto viagra super active vs viagra professional sildenafil canada viagra best price best viagra deals viagra on line cialis 20mg dosage viagra sydney viagra casero cialis headache remedy vardenafil hcl 20mg tab generic viagra review rite aid cialis price viagra nz viagra tablets for sale uk cialis paypal payment generic tadalafil review buying viagra online ireland cialis 20mg cialis spray youtube viagra cost of viagra 100mg viagra 100 mg pfizer viagra in cyprus viagra for sale without prescription viagra available in delhi cialis 5mg reviews viagra with discover card sildenafil aurochem viagra 100mg tablets price of cialis at walmart newsletter viagra buy generic cialis in canada tadalafil viagra costs per pill cialis price walmart sildenafil soft tablets buy cialis online paypal viagra by cipla vardenafil generico levitra etkileri levitra testimonials viagra fedex viagra dosage viagra super active plus female viagra to buy best place to buy viagra online real viagra cialis soft tabs vs cialis sildenafil citrate online levitra professional pay for viagra with paypal viagra c20 cialis viagra in kuala lumpur buy viagra in spain natural viagra alternatives cheap viagra for sale uk sildenafil dosage sri lanka viagra viagra in india price levitra cost walmart cialis for sale in canada sildenafil alcohol viagra 100mg pills viagra kgr 100 generic cialis paypal payment viagra gel sachets viagra brand generic viagra suppliers generic viagra free shipping india viagra tadalafil generic viagra in shanghai buy sildenafil natural viagra before after viagra pics cialis dapoxetine viagra coupon cialis directions cialis malaysia cialis gel tabs viagra spray what schedule is viagra how much is a viagra prescription buy viagra discover card 36 hour cialis online canada tadalafil cialis 5 mg cialis uk canadian pharmacy viagra scam cialis import viagra for sale in ireland cialis for sale tadalafil professional levitra price cialis rash everyday cialis best over the counter viagra how much does cialis cost with insurance cialis daily to buy viagra in singapore viagra long term effects can i buy viagra in singapore viagra tablets for women is generic cialis safe generic cialis cialis england viagra 200mg cialis 40 mg viagra in sydney cialis super active gel viagra para que serve tadalafil viagra for sale in canada walmart pharmacy cialis price generic viagra offers viagra instructions cialis over the counter canada what does generic viagra look like viagra dp viagra online edmonton fast acting viagra levitra dosage tadalafil from india tadalafil generic canada inexpensive viagra cialis expiration date why does viagra cost so much street value for viagra tadalafil bestellen viagra prices cialis headache relief buy viagra with discover card viagra in india hyderabad cialis ie viagra super active reviews does generic viagra work india tadalafil viagra cyprus viagra discover card viagra next day delivery usa cialis 50mg sildenafil 50mg viagra ontario levitra kaufen viagra in mexico viagra next day delivery buy viagra in singapore white viagra viagra online boots viagra ireland online generic super cialis levitra meaning buying viagra in hong kong sildenafil online canada buy viagra in malaysia female viagra cocktail long term side effects of viagra viagra price uk overnight viagra delivery vardenafil cialis prices cvs viagra sales uk how much viagra cost sildenafil citrate 50mg uk india generic cialis levitra plus viagra pay with pay pal levitra vs cialis cvs viagra price pink viagra long term effects of viagra mechanism of action of viagra cialis south africa cialis 100mg dosage cialis dosage instructions viagra for sale canada amsterdam viagra walmart cialis price vardenafil cipla how much viagra is safe levitra duration viagra in malaysia cialis side effects cheap viagra for sale viagra brisbane vigra viagra cocktail herbal viagra dublin tadalafil 5mg walmart pharmacy viagra price better than viagra buy viagra in sri lanka viagra toronto canada buy cialis in toronto viagra in northern ireland sildenafil pronunciation tadalafil sunrise to buy viagra in shanghai to buy viagra in stores buy liquid viagra cialis mexico sildenafil 100mg vardenafil price how many viagra can i take levitra nedir can you buy viagra over the counter in canada herbal viagra cost of viagra without insurance online viagra review buy viagra online australia generic levitra from india viagra 100mg price walmart buy viagra without prescription viagra gel uk generic viagra fast shipping levitra professional cheapest viagra in dubai pharmacy to buy viagra in south korea generic viagra discover card ranbaxy levitra viagra pay by paypal viagra viagra sales online buy viagra in hong kong buy generic viagra paypal how to ask your doctor for viagra buy viagra in calgary boots the chemist viagra bayer cialis can i get viagra in ireland viagra india online viagra super active uk tadalafil tablets viagra packaging sildenafil generic india cipla viagra review different type of viagra generic cialis reviews viagra tablets for sale viagra online australia viagra paypal payment cialis prices at walmart cialis walgreens price to buy cialis in toronto does viagra really work viagra perth viagra professional review levitra in windsor bayer levitra viagra in hong kong most powerful viagra cialis price comparison cialis forum is cialis over the counter in canada generic viagra uk cialis ireland online pharmacy cialis cost proviagra viagra for women in hindi brand levitra 20mg viagra professional vs viagra viagra tablets in hyderabad free viagra vardenafil side effects what is the shelf life of viagra generic viagra canada london drugs viagra cialis ireland tadalafil over the counter viagra price at walmart viagra in calgary tadalafil grapefruit viagra mailing list cialis europe cialis soft 20mg how much is cialis at walgreens tadalafil para que serve how to buy viagra in toronto cialis headache cialis walgreens red viagra viagra quick delivery levitra price at walmart sildenafil calgary viagra vardenafil hydrochloride cialis prices how much is cialis with insurance kamagra sildenafil buy strong viagra mygra sildenafil viagra hong kong mexico viagra boots viagra london viagra before after pics sildenafil citrate uk viagra headache cure is generic cialis from india safe cialis ireland online aurochem viagra viagra pro viagra for sale ireland viagra for women in india buy viagra online ireland viagra for sale australia best generic viagra viagra not working cost of viagra at walmart cialis pills for sale buy viagra london can you buy viagra over the counter in spain solubility of sildenafil otc cialis is generic viagra safe tadalafil india brand viagra canada generic cialis in canada mens viagra viagra online cyprus how much should viagra cost cost of viagra tablets in india vardenafil hci buy viagra online next day delivery how to get viagra in ireland viagra 100mg pfizer cialis pills generic cialis from canada online viagra sales viagra in london viagra high blood pressure levitra price walmart viagra nyc super strength viagra cipla viagra reviews viagra canada walmart sell viagra sildenafil gel is it illegal to buy viagra online viagra cost walmart cialis bayer grapefruit viagra interaction cialis from mexico cialis canada viagra american express sildenafil from india how much is viagra in mexico compare generic cialis prices cutting cialis in half levitra thailand how much is viagra on the street viagra costa rica discover card viagra buy cialis in singapore non prescription viagra female viagra canada hong kong viagra can you buy viagra without prescription cost of viagra in mexico viagra brochure viagra tablets in india sildenafil citrate 100mg uk female viagra best generic viagra reviews cialis liquid super viagra uk can i buy viagra in ireland over the counter viagra viagra germany female viagra for sale viagra tablets price in india viagra soft tabs uk super active viagra how long cialis take to work cialis reviews belize viagra viagra online uk paypal viagra in oil american viagra pfizer viagra for sale sildenafil citrate 100mg canada cialis canada online pharmacy cialis kontraindikacije cipla cialis review amazon viagra generic viagra professional 100mg levitra coupon cost of viagra in chennai viagra price walmart viagra professional 100mg how much viagra to take pink viagra for women buy viagra in delhi cialis capsules cipla generic cialis how much is viagra at walmart viagra 100mg for sale buy viagra online canada pink viagra levitra india cialis 10mg generic viagra ireland why does cialis use bathtubs does generic cialis work online viagra reviews brand cialis for sale cheap pfizer viagra online viagra price in uae brand viagra for sale generic viagra mastercard levitra in india viagra coupons generic viagra paypal viagra greece cost of cialis without insurance viagra knock offs viagra dublin how long does viagra last viagra for sale philippines viagra quotes super viagra generic cialis mexican viagra long term side effects levitra 20mg tablets how much does cialis cost viagra online viagra de cialis in spain generic viagra alternatives cialis tablets viagra dose levitra in thailand viagra glasgow is cialis better than viagra best price tadalafil viagra sale singapore buy cialis with paypal girls viagra cialis professional vs cialis i want to buy viagra discount viagra best over the counter viagra substitute to buy viagra in kuala lumpur generic viagra reviews deals on viagra viagra malaysia pharmacy jelly viagra cialis 5 mg daily viagra buy paypal pfizer viagra buy generic cialis online uk viagra las vegas viagra blindness symptoms female pink viagra levitra shelf life viagra user reviews cialis singapore buying viagra in ireland viagra manila viagra jelly uk generic viagra uk paypal buy viagra in london generic cialis 100mg generic viagra online reviews viagra gold wild viagra to buy viagra in ireland viagra for sale uk viagra uae viagra online no prescription uk walmart price for cialis substitute for viagra viagra co uk viagra in boots viagra instructions for use viagra reviews levitra 20mg cost of cialis at costco wikipedia viagra buy viagra using paypal cialis for young men brand viagra online cheap viagra next day delivery viagra cost at walmart cialis experiences pharmacy online ireland cialis cialis super active plus viagra tablets for men buy cialis viagra light female viagra cocktail recipe viagra pics liquid viagra viagra cost canada viagra directions for use spanish viagra tadalafil cheapest buy levitra in canada sildenafil temple buy viagra online usa viagra offer viagra ireland generic cialis paypal brand levitra viagra without prescription cialis generic viagra in costa rica pfizer viagra 100mg cialis information what is the shelf life of cialis sildenafil jelly viagra for sale powerful viagra buy viagra japan levitra tablet cialis cipla sildenafil solubility can you take viagra cialis together cheap viagra uk paypal viagra in cape town discount cialis canada cialis prices walmart sildenafil liquid viagra online canada viagra cvs viagra dose size cialis etkileri viagra online nz best price on cialis levitra price walgreens cialis professional boots viagra supplier viagra side effects buy viagra ireland how much is viagra on prescription viagra alcohol side effects viagra youtube cialis super active reviews bayviagra who sells viagra is viagra legal in singapore sildenafil 100mg canadian bay viagra tadalafil 20mg viagra wikipedia viagra free shipping viagra at walmart viagra professional uk pink cialis sildenafil generic is viagra legal in australia cialis vs viagra reviews cialis tablets for sale buy viagra online canada viagra orange county viagra in nigeria canadian viagra scam viagra discount coupon online pharmacy viagra how much is levitra at walmart viagra availability in delhi can you buy viagra over the counter viagra light switch buying viagra online viagra in sri lanka viagra generic levitra canada buy viagra dublin cialis 5mg sildenafil genfar cialis ontario viagra versus cialis cialis super active 20mg viagra for sale in london levitra pro generic tadalafil uk generic viagra overnight shipping viagra 25mg online viagra 50mg 100mg viagra pills for sale buy viagra in shanghai viagra price comparisons boots ireland viagra cialis ebay generic viagra price viagra professional vs viagra super active viagra capsules female viagra uk viagra 50mg canada walmart viagra price viagra forum canada viagra via paypal viagra with dapoxetine buy viagra with paypal substitute of viagra in india sildenafil india buy viagra new york cialis 36 hour online viagra kako deluje does walmart have viagra female pink viagra 100mg pills viagra vancouver cheap viagra pills cost of viagra per pill sunrise tadalafil cialis mailing list viagra south africa cialis gel getting viagra in ireland viagra in dubai deals how to get viagra in singapore viagra prices at walmart viagra email list viagra japan female viagra 100mg ebay viagra buy levitra from canada costco cialis price to buy viagra in dubai buy viagra in cyprus levitra price comparison cialis 100mg pills cialis coupon online viagra meaning cialis best price cialis australia viagra tablets in bangalore wild viagra uk lowest price on cialis buy 36 hour cialis cheap cialis in canada buy viagra toronto buy viagra from india buying viagra in mexico what is cialis used for tadalafil soft gelatin capsules dubai viagra gold viagra cialis 20mg price price of viagra in mexico viagra suppliers viagra prices in pakistan brand cialis canada buy viagra with pay pal generic viagra india safe sildenafil price tadalafil overdose viagra 100mg prices viagra in hyderabad plant vigra viagra c20 to buy viagra in edmonton viagra online pay with paypal generic levitra india vardenafil uk viagra generic date herbal viagra au levitra ireland viagra 50mg online viagra fast viagra vs cialis cialis 20mg reviews walmart pharmacy viagra sildenafil 50 mg viagra jakarta viagra over the counter viagra uk boots viagra shoppers drug mart price of viagra tablets in india best deals on viagra viagra gel sale shanghai viagra price of viagra in delhi cvs cialis cialis daily generic sildenafil synthesis viagra online india cialis japan cialis jelly cialis online paypal canadian pharmacy online cialis vardenafil india las vegas viagra viagra shelf life viagra vietnam buy viagra viagra before after viagra professional viagra fast shipping does online viagra work viagra ingredients levitra grapefruit viagra shanghai buy viagra spain cialis daily reviews viagra tablets price in pakistan cheapest viagra how much does viagra cost at target cyprus viagra best price cialis 20mg cheap brand viagra viagra online no prescription viagra expiration date how much is viagra with insurance sildenafil citrate 50mg viagra sign up viagra alternatives cvs viagra cialis generic uk cialis bangkok viagra price in india buying viagra in germany viagra street value cialis testimonials strong viagra viagra pricing buy viagra edmonton viagra overnight shipping before after viagra viagra mechanism pfizer viagra reviews viagra in delhi cialis one a day levitra professional online cialis price at walmart how much does viagra cost at walmart buying viagra ireland cialis in ireland vardenafil tablets how much does a viagra prescription cost generic levitra reviews how much does viagra cost without insurance brand cialis levitra super active plus sildenafil citrate canada viagra usa ebay cialis cialis via paypal cialis soft tabs review cialis wiki viagra amsterdam viagra without subscription viagra kuwait viagra tube to buy viagra in glasgow super viagra plus generic cialis uk different types of viagra mechanism of viagra cialis wikipedia viagra denver how much is viagra in ireland generic names for viagra viagra recreational use pharmacy express viagra shelf life cialis pharmacy express viagra cialis levitra vpxl shoppers drug mart viagra shelf life of cialis viagra in hindi brand cialis online how much is viagra worth viagra with paypal how to obtain viagra female viagra in india viagra liquid viagra generic paypal viagra kuala lumpur next day viagra delivery cialis before after can i buy viagra with paypal can i buy viagra in mexico viagra in dublin viagra san diego canadian pharmacy viagra viagra pfizer viagra shipped from canada cialis bayer 20 buy viagra in dubai viagra in south africa bangkok viagra boots cialis is generic levitra safe much does viagra cost walmart costco cialis tadalafil best price how much is viagra tijuana pharmacy viagra generic cialis review cialis getting pregnant different kinds of viagra aurochem laboratories generic cialis reviews cialis tadalafil viagra street price c 20 il viagra generic viagra from india viagra building viagra results buying viagra in spain viagra boots viagra uk paypal wal mart pharmacy prices cialis how much does viagra cost with a prescription viagra paypal canada how long does cialis last shelf life of viagra viagra blood pressure levitra professional reviews aurochem sildenafil generic viagra next day delivery best generic viagra review how much does cialis cost in canada tadalafil soft tablets sildenafil tablets 100mg viagra substitute over the counter viagra for sale cheap generic cialis india benefits of cialis levitra generic buy viagra in new york buy chinese viagra generic cialis overnight shipping viagra in spain genuine viagra for sale buy cialis from india cheap viagra female cialis review cialis espanol generic viagra scam how much is levitra cheap viagra 100mg viagra in uae how does viagra work viagra in stores how many viagra can you take in a day original viagra pfizer viagra gel sachets uk walgreens cialis price walmart viagra pricing viagra online without prescription reviews levitra review cheap tadalafil viagra no prescription paypal viagra singapore cialis yan etkileri organic cialis viagra price in delhi viagra for sell viagra for women viagra oil viagra soft tabs review viagra for sale in spain cialis professional wikipedia buy viagra in france buy generic cialis uk viagra gel caps viagra in south korea viagra price online viagra ireland what is viagra jelly viagra manchester buy cialis ireland viagra for sale no prescription cialis generic canada viagra uk viagra sri lanka legal age to buy viagra Erectile Dysfunction female viagra review overnight shipping viagra viagra substitute viagra in singapore viagra tablets in pakistan to buy viagra viagra ebay viagra flavored 100mg cost of viagra female cialis what does viagra cost at walmart viagra ie cialis 5mg price buying viagra in dubai daily use cialis cialis vs viagra buy viagra in pakistan viagra on ebay viagra in pakistan buy viagra in toronto viagra natural viagra jellies viagra prices cvs viagra cipla dapoxetine cialis cialis price cialis daily online viagra northern ireland walmart tadalafil buy generic viagra using paypal boots viagra online paypal viagra types of viagra generic viagra price comparison viagra deals temple sildenafil levitra forum buy viagra online no prescription how much is viagra in boots how to get viagra viagra grapefruit what is viagra gold levitra 20mg price pharmacy sildenafil viagra copyright cialis with dapoxetine cialis pink buying viagra in tijuana viagra paypal generic viagra safety next day delivery cialis cialis canada reviews what do viagra tablets look like sildenafil citrate tablets 100mg viagra malaysia cheap cialis is viagra legal in ireland levitra professional uk vardenafil 10mg cialis 100mg levitra 10mg levitra side effects generic tadalafil canada what is the street value of viagra how does sildenafil work viagra natural casera how much is viagra in the philippines cialis jelly sachet viagra canada pharmacy scam buy viagra online with paypal cheap next day delivery viagra viagra sales tadalafil generic india how much does viagra cost in canada viagra sales in canada viagra for women for sale viagra dosage instructions genericviagra me uk viagra online paypal uk sildenafil troche india cialis cialis en espanol viagra for men edmonton viagra singapore viagra to buy viagra in hyderabad boots viagra brand cialis no prescription viagra gel viagra overdose cialis super active plus reviews viagra results before after synthesis sildenafil buy viagra pay with paypal viagra equivalent does generic viagra look like topical sildenafil viagra discount prices viagra canada no prescription how much is viagra without insurance viagra super active viagra fast delivery is there a viagra for women ingredients in cialis levitra generic canada viagra from mexico to buy viagra in calgary cost of levitra at walmart viagra substitute uk cialis side effects in men viagra articles cialis from india viagra grapefruit interaction buy vardenafil uk how much is cialis without insurance cialis spain viagra in toronto buy viagra in mexico buying viagra in singapore viagra tablets in chennai cialis walmart price viagra 100 mg best price how much is viagra in uk buy viagra paypal viagra price in indian rupees cialis in toronto cialis professional 20 mg viagra tablets viagra 100 walmart cialis viagra costs viagra sale viagra hq toronto sildenafil citrate 100mg cialis cost canada how long for cialis to work viagra cheap levitra malaysia how much does cialis cost without insurance levitra yan etkileri buying viagra in london viagra pay with paypal viagra in chennai cialis overnight shipping get viagra ireland viagra for girls how long before cialis kicks in viagra en espanol how much does viagra cost in ireland viagra online reviews walmart levitra generic levitra canada sildenafil citrate paypal cialis levitra in delhi levitra hong kong viagra atlanta buy viagra through paypal walgreens viagra price generic cialis next day delivery viagra not working anymore cialis for daily use walmart prices for viagra tadalafil soft gelatin capsule brand viagra cialis coupon cialis dosage 40 mg viagra in kuwait shoppers drug mart cialis c20 viagra generic viagra 50mg viagra gels sildenafil powder female viagra pill viagra calgary viagra price canada to buy viagra in new york cialis 1800 does cialis really work viagra testimonials viagra 25mg how much is viagra in canada were to buy viagra try viagra for free viagra soft tabs 36 hr cialis buy levitra online canada viagra price comparison buy viagra from usa cialis cvs cheap cialis uk walmart levitra price cost of cialis at walmart real viagra online pfizer viagra price in india viagra hk levitra half life viagra for sale in usa cialis sale online viagra canada paypal viagra wiki levitra cost at walmart cialis 10mg price tadalafil overnight cialis blog viagra with no prescription to get viagra in toronto cialis benefits cialis at walmart cialis uk next day delivery cialis in mexico viagra pills viagra 100mg price buy cialis online with paypal levitra viagra power 100 wholesale viagra buy viagra montreal viagra under tongue chinese viagra brand name viagra pink viagra for sale buy viagra online no prescription uk brand viagra offers can i get viagra in chennai levitra vs viagra viagra online ireland levitra at walmart cialis bathtub symbolism walmart pharmacy cialis levitra walmart price aurochem cialis cialis super active review grapefruit viagra over the counter cialis cialis online canada buy generic cialis wikipedia cialis costco pharmacy cialis tadalafil brands generic cialis from india cialis walmart sign up for viagra viagra at boots paypal payment for viagra viagra soft gels cialis sales cialis capsule viagra london drugs tadalafil uk brand viagra 100mg viagra uk next day delivery viagra cost per pill generic tadalafil cialis over the counter viagra boots london cialis paypal viagra soft 100mg viagra dapoxetine viagra toronto viagra japao buy tadalafil 36 hour cialis cialis bathtub meaning boots chemist viagra how much does viagra cost in the uk cialis c20 viagra alternatives for sale viagra 50mg tadalafil ingredients cialis price in malaysia buy cialis in canada love viagra vardenafil citrate cialis 10mg vs 20mg buying viagra in france viagra alcohol shelf life viagra sildenafil tablets liquid viagra uk viagra india price cialis lilly buy viagra online in ireland free cialis viagra melbourne nude viagra viagra under the tongue cost of viagra in canada sildenafil dapoxetine india generic viagra levitra 20mg dosage viagra headache buying viagra in costa rica viagra pills for men viagra power cheap generic cialis uk sildenafil soft tablets 100mg viagra paypal checkout cheap cialis next day delivery is viagra safe tadalafil usa vardenafil canada viagra types viagra for sale in uk how much do viagra pills cost synthesis of sildenafil viagra london viagra benefits viagra soft walmart viagra viagra casera cialis original is generic viagra real cialis dubai how much does viagra cost viagra in srilanka kuala lumpur viagra viagra substitutes over the counter tadalafil tablets 20 mg can i buy viagra in dubai levitra reviews vardenafil hcl cialis free offer price of levitra at walmart brand viagra no prescription levitra 20 mg is the cialis from canada any good levitra philippines vardenafil duration of action buy viagra in ireland cialis costco cialis 10mg tablets buy female viagra uk how many viagra pills can i take vardenafil aurochem can i buy viagra in toronto cutting viagra in half cialis pro tadalafil generic uk levitra prices walmart cvs pharmacy cialis viagra pills look like cipla viagra viagra tijuana cialis cost in canada how many viagra can you take how much is viagra in south africa cheapest viagra online over the counter viagra substitute viagra prices walmart 6 5 9 0 Green Integer Books, Green Integer Review 5, Douglas Messerli on Witold Gombrowicz Green Integer Books

Green Integer | 6210 Wilshire Boulevard, Suite 211 | Los Angeles, CA 90048 | (323) 857-1115 | Contact Us

Essays, Manifestos, Statements, Speeches, Maxims, Epistles, Diaristic Jottings, Narratives, Natural histories, Poems, Plays, Performances, Ramblings, Revelations, and all such ephemera as may appear necessary to bring society into a slight tremolo of confusion and fright at least.

Complete Catalog
On Net (PDFs)
Recent Titles
Best Sellers

Green Integer Review

No. 5 (Nov 2006)
Poetry & Fiction, Interviews, Essays & Reviews, Bios, Links
Douglas Messerli, Editor

Douglas Messerli

The Serving Class [on Witold Gombrowicz]

The Serving Class

Witold Gombrowicz, Ferdydurke (Warsaw: Towarzystwo Wydawnicze Rój, 1937).
Witold Gombrowicz, Ferdydurke, translated by Eric Mosbacher (New York: Harcourt, Brace and World, 1961).
Witold Gombrowicz, Kosmos (Kraków: Wydawnictwo Literackie, 1986)
Witold Gombrowicz, Ferdydurke, translated by Danuta Borchardt (New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 2000).
Witold Gombrowicz, Pamiętnikz okresu dojrzewania (Poland, 1933).
Witold Gombrowicz, Bakakaj (Kraków: Wydawnictwo Literackie, 1957).
Witold Gombrowicz, Bacacay, translated from the Polish by Bill Johnston (New York: Archipelago Books, 2002).
Witold Gombrowicaz, Cosmos, translated from the Polish by Danuta Borchardt (New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 2005).


Gombrowicz’s great masterwork of Polish literature, Ferdydurke was published in Warsaw in 1937, and over the years has been twice translated into English. The current edition, published by Yale University Press, seems destined to become the authoritative edition—although some critics have argued that the changes most put forward by the new translator Danuta Borchardt are not that central to the reading; and for some readers the favorite edition remains Eric Mosbacher’s translation of the early 1960s. Since I don’t read Polish, and have forgotten my experience of first reading, I’ll offer no opinion on this issue.

     No one seems to know the exact source or meaning of the novel’s title—which has no particular meaning or obvious association in Polish culture; some argue it was appropriated from Sinclair Lewis’ Babbitt character, Freddy Durkee. It hardly matters, for Gombrowicz’s tale is centered on three interconnected stories of institutional domination and the infantilization of the individual that follows. In the first section, Joey, an adult in his 30s is suddenly abducted by his former school-teacher, T. Plimko, “a doctor of philosophy and a professor, in reality just a schoolteacher, a cultural philologue from Kraków, short and light, skinny, bald, wearing spectacles, pin-striped trousers, a jacket, yellow buckskin shoes, his fingernails large and yellow.” Joey is taken away and returned to sixth grade, where—in Lewis Carroll-like absurdity—he towers among his fellow students without anyone seeming to notice his age or stature. Through a series of verbal abuses, ritualistic mutterings (which includes the conjugation of Latin adverbs and statements like “…We teachers love you little chickies, chirp, chirp, chirp, you know: ‘suffer the little ones to come unto me.’”) Joey is imprisoned and belittled into submission at his new institution.

     Gombrowicz hilariously mocks not only the teaching in this absurd world, but the students who through their language have grotesquely twisted their thinking to the empty logic of the system: “And what perfidious whims and airs have perchance caused the person of my dear Sir to present himself so tardily at this dump of a school?” chirps one of the students. Another laughs idiotically, saying “Could it be that amours for a damsel have delayed our colegus venerabilis? Is this perchance why our presumptuous colegus so languidus est?” Given such meaningless jargon, the linguistic battles between students Syphon and Kneadus become a world of hyper-speech that is a good match to our cypertalk and advertising jargon of today.

     Just when it appears that Joey could not be further humiliated, he is sent to live in the home of a bourgeois family, the Youngbloods, where he falls ridiculously in love with the daughter, who as a “modern schoolgirl,” creates a pattern of  perpetual seduction and punishment of her would-be suitor. To get back at the girl and family, Joey plots to entrap his professor in the girl’s room, which ends in an absurd free-for-all on the floor of the room where she has been discovered by her parents with a young student and Plimko both. Humiliation and denigration has again won the day, and Joey is left with no alternative but to escape.

     His escape with fellow student Kneadus to the country, however, bodes no better for the future. For Kneadus has suddenly transformed his love of young serving girls to a homoerotic search for young farmhands. Joey and Kneadus retreat to the farm of Joey’s uncle and aunt, where indeed Kneadus finds the object of his desire, much to the consternation of the elderly couple, Joey, and the young valet,Valek. Joey’s attempt to take Kneadus from the house in a final escape ends in perhaps the funniest scene in the book, as the master of the house, hearing Joey, Kneadus and Valek on the escape, enters the room—gun in hand. Lights out, they remain frozen in position as the farmer searches for them, soon joined by Joey’s cousins—who, in turn, all freeze in panic as the butler enters with a paraffin lamp. Each individual, terrified of discovery, pretends a kind of nonexistence until the room is filled, Gombrowicz hints, with a world of inexplicable ghosts.

     Before one can have a world of absurd bureaucracy, one must have a world of individuals willing to submit.

     In Bacacay, made up of sections from Ferdydurke and seven earlier short stories, we see the roots of Gombrowicz’s thinking and perceive the grotesque humor which already characterized his writing before the great novel. “Lawyer Kraykowski’s Dancer” begins very similarly to Arthur Schnitzler’s short novel, Lieutenant Gustl: a man at a concert is insulted by another. But while Schnitzler’s Lieutenant suffers such indignation that he imagines murder and suicide, the narrator of Gombrowicz’s story follows his tormentor, observing his patterns of life and ultimately becoming so infatuated with the figure that he looses his mind; encountering the lawyer in the park he goes into a kind of wild, bacchic dance that reminds one a bit of Martha Graham’s mad dance of Medea. Revenge may be his, but he has lost life in the process, and, accordingly, ends up worse than Schnitzler’s insufferable soldier.

      A judge on a business visit to a landed gentry’s manor, finds his client dead, and is convinced that, although there are no outward signs, that it was a murder. “A Premediated Crime” is a Grombrowicz’s version of a murder mystery—with his usual inversion of reality: there is no true evidence of murder. Convinced the man did not die of a normal heart attack but was asphyxiated, the hero stays on with the family, suspecting each of them and uncovering some rather bizarre behavior and lies. Ultimately, it is determined that all the family members expected, perhaps even sought out, his death, but had locked themselves in their rooms at night. Under the pressure of suspicion, however, the son suddenly admits the murder. The judge has no alternative but to admit, however, that there is no evidence, no marks upon the deceased man’s neck. In an absurd reversal to childhood, the judge retreats to the wardrobe of the dead man’s room, as the son or, perhaps, another family member, enters to place the evidence of his finger marks upon the dead man’s neck. In a world of such absurd suspicion, Gombrowicz indicates, one cannot but become a criminal. Like Kafka’s K, in a society of suspicion even the guiltless are necessarily guilty.

      “Dinner at Countess Pavhoke’s” reiterates many of the themes of Ferdydurke, as a young commoner is taken into the world of high Society. Here too there is an absurd twisting of language, as the new guest attempts to match the poeticized sentiments of the other guests. Attending one of the countess’s “meatless evenings,” he quips “This soup’s deliciously filling--/And made, what’s more, without corpses or killing.”  But the other highly cultured guests gradually begin to reveal their coarseness and malice. As they eat their way through the supposedly delectable vegetarian dishes, the outsider and reader gradually began to comprehend the cook has served them up various courses of human flesh. Indeed, everything is “a matter of taste” if one understands that such acculturated “tastes” depend upon the destruction of the serving class.  


Los Angeles, November 15, 2005






Readers and critics generally agree that Gombrowicz’s masterpiece is Ferdydurke, while his other works are less interesting experimentations. My favorite of his fictions, however, is his last, Cosmos, a work I find to be far more troubling and yet deeply comic than his satiric portrait of an infantilized society. As Gombrowicz himself commented on this work: “Cosmos for me, is black, first and foremost black, something like a black churning current full of whirls, stoppages, flood waters, a black water carrying lots of refuse, and there is man gazing at it—gazing at it and swept by it—trying to decipher, to understand and to bind it into some kind of a whole…”

      The author aptly summarizes his fiction, but in typical Gombrowicz style he has, one recognizes, expressed truths with a bit of tongue-in-cheek. For, although it is most certainly the darkest of the writings under consideration in this essay, it is also the most grandly comic, a comedy that transpires without eliciting much outright laughter.

      If the characters of Ferdydurke and Bacacay predicate their actions upon a society devoted to servitude, so too does the “hero” of Cosmos—a young Polish student seeking a place of peace to study for his university exams—serves what he might express as a “higher cause.” This student does not intend to obey “others”—he has just had a terrible fight with his father and family, presumably over the direction of his career—but is determined to serve “the truth.” What he does not recognize, however, is that his university-learned “truths”—truths built upon rational connections of the human mind, associatively-constructed realities predicated on the sensate signifiers of the surrounding world—may reveal nothing and lead one down a labyrinth of inane relationships that result, in the end, in madness. If as a child I laughed at my grandmother when she proclaimed “If you think too much, you may go mad,” Gombrowicz helps us to perceive that indeed it is possible if one too carefully follows the modernist principles of psychologically realist literature and art.

     “Only connect,” proclaimed E. M. Foster (in the epigraph to his novel Howards End), one of modernist fictions most adamant proscribers. Witold takes that command at face value as he attempts to comprehend the world around him, leading to a despairing impasse that only a post-modernist-before-the-fact-writer such as Gombrowicz could have forseen.

      As the young student begins his search for housing in the small town Zakopane, he suddenly runs into an old acquaintance, Fuks, who suggests they share a place on the outskirts of town, where rooms are cheaper. Off they trudge into the countryside, resting momentarily in a thicket where, as they turn to leave, they discover a terrible “crime,” a dead sparrow hanging from a wire hooked onto a branch high in a tree, “its head to one side, its beak wide open.” The sparrow has clearly been killed and hung there for all to see. Who could have done such a deed? And why?

     The troubled students find a house advertising rooms nearby, and knocking at the door are greeted by a housekeeper with a strangely deformed mouth. They take a room, noticing in another empty room a young woman lying upon a mattress, her leg dangling across the metal mesh of the bed. Everything in this Zakophone farmhouse seems slightly awry and out of place to these young would-be intellects, who yet perceive that there is nothing outwardly strange about any of it.

    Joining the Wojty family for dinner, the young student and his companion experience what might be perceived as a normal evening meal as a series of strange events. As with Gombrowic’s dectective in his “A Premitated Crime,” for these would-be detectives the more things appear as normal, the stranger they become. There is a troubling connection between the “slithering” lips of the housekeeper Katasia and the “slippery” lips of the Wojty’s daughter, Lena. For the young student, in turn, these have some relationship he cannot explain to the nearby executed sparrow. Exhausted from his travels, he still cannot sleep, and discovers that Fuks has disappeared into the night. Has he snuck into Lena’s room, returned to observe the sparrow in the moonlight?

    The following day, the young man observes what appears to be an arrow upon the wall of the room adjoining their dining space; Fuks points out a similar arrow-like stain on the ceiling of their bedroom. Is someone trying to tell them something, point out a path to follow in their search for the “murderer” of the innocent beast?

    Late at night, with comically inventive tools, they “scientifically” attempt to follow the path of the arrow into the backyard, where they are led to an old building where, nearby, a stick is hanging? Is the hanging stick related to the hanging bird? A nearby whiffletree seems to be pointing in the same direction; is someone observing them from the windows of the house?

    These ridiculously tenuous connections lead the students on a maddening search for meaning which ultimately involves the entire family—the mother (dubbed Roly-Poly by the boys); the distracted and logorrheic husband, Leon; Lena and her husband Ludvik; as well as the mysterious Katasia—in an internal investigation which occasionally reveals each as lonely and somewhat desperate, but just as often leads to blind alleys which the narrator’s mind refuses to accept. He himself becomes engulfed in the strange events as he inexplicably strangles Lena’s pet cat and hangs it, connecting himself with the never-ending trail of “evidence.”

    Ultimately, as Leon leads them on a day trip into the nearby mountains, the rational world is replaced by more and more startlingly insane interconnections as the seemingly innocent family members and friends are caught up in their own webs of symbols and associations, ultimately leading to a strange night-time celebration of Leon’s only extra-martial affair—culminating in an incomprehensible private language and public masturbation—and the apparent suicide of Ludvick, discovered hanging from a tree. By this time the narrator has become as mad as any of his imaginary perpetrators, forcing his fingers into the mouth of the dead man —a mouth somehow connected in his psychologically tangled “plot” with Lena and Katshsia—and, later, stuffing them into the mouth of a priest the travelers have picked up on their voyage into these wilds.

     By fiction’s end the narrator has experienced a kind of mental overload of information, has attempted so desperately to connect the pieces of the sensate world that he can no longer function—a flood of information paralleling a sudden deluge in the natural world:

Loose, dense drops, we lift our heads, it suddenly poured buckets,
water came down in sheets, a sudden wind rose, panic, everyone
running for the nearest tree, but the pines are leaking, dripping,
dribbling, water, water, water, wet hair, backs, thighs, and just
ahead of us in the dark darkness a vertical fall of falling water
interrupted solely by despairing flashlights, then, in the light of
the flashlights, one could see it pour, fall, also streams, waterfalls,
lakes, it drips, spurts, splashes, lakes, seas, currents of gurgling
water and a bit of straw, stick, carried by water, disappearing....

Our young hero returns to Warsaw, to war with his father, problems, complications, difficulties….: in other words, he is forced to once more to deal with the “real” world of human interchange—a world often without answers, without the strained connections of a pretending art.   

Los Angeles, June 12, 2006



Return to Top



Copyright ©2006 by Douglas Messerli


Green Integer Review
   No. 1, Jan-Feb 2006
   No. 2, Mar-Apr 2006
   No. 3, May-July 2006
   No. 4, Aug-Oct 2006
   No. 5, Nov 2006
   No. 6, Dec 2006
   No. 7, Feb 2007
   No. 8, Mar-May 2007
   No. 9, Jun-Oct 2007
   No. 10 Nov-Dec 2007
 PIP Poet Biographies
 America Awards
 Mr. Knife, Miss Fork
 Recent Book Reviews

Green Integer | 6210 Wilshire Boulevard, Suite 211 | Los Angeles, CA 90048
(323) 857-1115 | Contact Us

©2006, Green Integer , All Rights Reserved